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Genetic portrait of 23 Y-STR loci in the Brahmin population of Haryana, India

Genetisches Porträt von 23 Y-STR-Loci in der Brahmanen-Bevölkerung von Haryana, Indien

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Abstract

In India, there is a lack of Y‑STR haplotype data of different castes/groups. In this direction, we have conducted the present study for the first time to generate the Y‑STR haplotype data of Haryana Brahmin population. Forensic application and genetic diversity of the Brahmin population of Haryana (India) were studied using 23 Y-STR markers in 104 male individuals. Several forensic parameters such as haplotype diversity (HD), allelic and haplotype frequency, discrimination power (PD), polymorphism information content (PIC) and random match probability (PM) were assessed for this population. Pairwise Rst values were also evaluated by analyzing AMOVA and envisioned through multidimensional scaling (MDS) plot. The average discrimination capacity (DC), HD and gene diversity (GD) values of the panel were found to be 0.9696, 0.999 and 0.654, respectively. Overall, 99 complete haplotype profiles were generated in 104 individuals of whom 93 were unique and three haplotypes were found twice. DYS576 and DYS481 markers showed the presence of micro-variant alleles. Our results conclude that 23 Y-STRs loci in the Brahmins of Haryana are forensically potent and might contribute to our understanding of the genealogical relationship between Brahmin and other Indian populations. In addition, generated genetic data of the Brahmin population of Haryana will enrich the population data bank.

Zusammenfassung

In Indien mangelt es an Y‑STR-Haplotyp-Daten verschiedener Kasten/Gruppen. In diesem Sinne haben wir die vorliegende Studie zum ersten Mal durchgeführt, um die Y‑STR-Haplotyp-Daten der Brahmanen-Bevölkerung von Haryana zu ermitteln. Die forensische Anwendung und die genetische Vielfalt der Brahmanen-Bevölkerung von Haryana (Indien) wurden anhand von 23 Y-STR-Markern bei 104 männlichen Individuen untersucht. Mehrere forensische Parameter wie Haplotypenvielfalt (HD), Allel- und Haplotypenhäufigkeit, Unterscheidungskraft (PD), Polymorphismus-Informationsgehalt (PIC) und zufällige Übereinstimmungswahrscheinlichkeit (PM) wurden für diese Population bewertet. Die paarweisen Rst-Werte wurden auch durch eine AMOVA-Analyse ausgewertet und durch eine MDS-Darstellung („multidimensional scaling“) veranschaulicht. Die durchschnittlichen Werte für das Unterscheidungsvermögen (DC), die HD und die Gendiversität (GD) des Panels betrugen 0,9696, 0,999 bzw. 0,654. Insgesamt wurden 99 vollständige Haplotypenprofile bei 104 Personen erstellt, von denen 93 einzigartig waren und 3 Haplotypen zweimal gefunden wurden. Die Marker DYS576 und DYS481 zeigten das Vorhandensein von mikrovarianten Allelen. Unsere Ergebnisse lassen den Schluss zu, dass 23 Y-STRs-Loci bei den Brahmanen von Haryana forensisch wertvoll sind und zu unserem Verständnis der genealogischen Beziehungen zwischen Brahmanen und anderen indischen Populationen beitragen könnten. Darüber hinaus werden die generierten genetischen Daten der Brahmanen von Haryana die Bevölkerungsdatenbank bereichern.

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Acknowledgements

We are thankful to all the blood sample donors who contributed to this work. Also, thanks to Promega for providing the kits.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

RY and VS conceived and designed the experiments. SS performed all the wet laboratory experiments. VS and MZ analyzed data. RY, SS and SR wrote the manuscript. CY, PA, MT and LK read and improved the manuscript. All the authors participated in the discussion and provided input to improve the manuscript’s content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Ritu Yadav.

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Conflict of interest

S. Sharma, R. Yadav, V. Sahajpal, M. Zieger, S. Ranga, P. Ahuja, C. Yadav, M. Tanwar, L. Kadian and P. Chauhan declare that they have no competing interests.

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants or on human tissue were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1975 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The ethics committee of Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (Haryana), India approved the study with Ref. No., IHEC/2017/110 dt. 09/09/2021. Consent to participate: informed consent was obtained from all participants included in the study.

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From the corresponding author Dr. Ritu Yadav on request.

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Sharma, S., Yadav, R., Sahajpal, V. et al. Genetic portrait of 23 Y-STR loci in the Brahmin population of Haryana, India. Rechtsmedizin 33, 410–420 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00194-023-00634-z

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