Shock Waves

, Volume 18, Issue 6, pp 425–435 | Cite as

Aerodynamic force measurement using 3-component accelerometer force balance system in a hypersonic shock tunnel

  • S. SaravananEmail author
  • G. Jagadeesh
  • K. P. J. Reddy
Original Article


A new three-component accelerometer force balance has been designed, calibrated and tested in hypersonic shock tunnel (HST2) of Indian Institute of Science. The newly designed balance is able to measure aerodynamic forces (within test time of one millisecond) on test models at angles of attack from 0 to 12°. Two models, a blunt cone with after body and a blunt cone with after body and frustum are used to establish the accuracy of the force balance. The tests were conducted for the above two configurations with a constant Mach number of 8 and total enthalpy of 2.0 MJ/kg. The effectiveness of the balance is demonstrated by comparing the forces and moments of measured data with AGARD models. The flow fields around the test model are simulated using a 3D axisymmetric Navier–Stokes solver and the simulated results were compared with the measured values. Measured and computed force data are matched within ±10% for two different models tested here. The accuracy of the force balance is also estimated with the Newtonian theory and the values are approximately ±10% for the axial component and ±8% for the normal and pitching moment components.


Accelerometer force balance Force measurements High enthalpy Shock tunnel and hypersonics 




Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Truitt R.W.: Hypersonic Aerodynamics. The Ronald Press Company, New York (1959)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stalker R.J.: Development of a hypervelocity wind tunnel. Aeronaut. J. 76, 374–384 (1972)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sanderson S.R., Simmons J.M.: Drag balance for hypersonic impulse facilities. AIAA J. 29, 2185–2191 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mee D.J., Daniel W.J.T., Simmons J.M.: Three-component force balance for flows of millisecond duration. AIAA J. 34-1, 590–595 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Storkmann V., Olivier H., Gronig H.: Force measurements in hypersonic impulse facilities. AIAA J. 36-3, 342–348 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Takahashi, M., Komuro, K., Itoh, K.H.T., Ueda, S.: Development of a new force measurement method for scramjet testing in a high enthalpy shock tunnel. AIAA Paper 1999–4961 (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Naumann K.W., Ende H., Mathieu G., George A.: Millisecond aerodynamic force measurement with side jet model in the ISL shock tunnel. AIAA J. 31-6, 1068–1074 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carbonaro, M.: Aerodynamic force measurements in the VKI longshot hypersonic facility. New trends in instrumentation for hypersonic research, pp. 317–325 (1993)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Srulijes, J., Gnemmi, P., Runne, K., Seiler, F.: High-pressure shock tunnel experiments and CFD calculations on spike-tipped blunt bodies. AIAA Paper 2002–2918 (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hubner J.P., Carroll B.F., Schanze K.S., Ji H.F.: Pressure-Sensitive paint measurements in a shock tube. Exp. Fluids 28, 21–28 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lam, L.Y., Stollenwerk, E.J.: Aerodynamic force measurement of free-flight models in a hypervelocity shock tunnel. AIAA 1966–0771 (1966)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jessen, C., Gronig, H.: A six component balance for short duration hypersonic facilities. New trends in Instrumentation for hypersonic research, pp. 295–305 (1993)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vidal, R.J.: Model instrumentation techniques for heat transfer and force measurements in a hypersonic shock tunnel. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory Report, WADC TN 56-315 (1956)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Joshi M.V., Reddy N.M.: Aerodynamic force measurements over missile configuration in IISc shock tunnel at Mach 5.5. Exp. Fluids 4, 338–340 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Raju C., Reddy N.M.: Aerodynamic force measurements over missile configuration in IISc shock tunnel at Mach 3.85 and 9.15. Exp. Fluids 10, 175–177 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Viren M., Saravanan S., Jagadeesh G., Reddy K.P.J.: Experimental investigations of hypersonic flow over highly blunted cones with aerospikes. AIAA J. 41-10, 1955–1966 (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Viren M., Saravanan S., Reddy K.P.J.: Shock tunnel study of spiked aerodynamic bodies flying at hypersonic Mach Number. Shock Waves. 12, 197–204 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saravanan, S.: Experimental investigation of the effect of nose cavity on the aerothermodynamics of the missile shaped bodies flying at hypersonic Mach numbers: Ph.D. Thesis, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sahoo, N., Mahapatra, D.R., Jagadeesh, G., Gopalakrishnan, S., Reddy, K.P.J.: Aerodynamic force measurements on 60° apex angle blunt cones flying at Mach 5.75 using a 3-component acceleromeer balance: AIAA Paper-2002-5204(2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sahoo N., Mahapatra D.R., Jagadeesh G., Gopalakrishnan S., Reddy K.P.J.: An accelerometer balance system for measurement of aerodynamic force coefficients over blunt bodies in a hypersonic shock tunnel. Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 260–272 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mee D.J.: Dynamic calibration of force balances for impulse facilities. Shock Waves 12-6, 443–456 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reddy, N.M.: Aerodynamic force measurements in the hypersonic shock tunnel. In: Proceedings of 14th International Symposium on Shock Waves, p. 358 (1983)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ashby, G.C. Jr., Cary, A.M. Jr.: A parametric study of the aerodynamic characteristics of nose-cylinder-flare bodies at a Mach number of 6.0 : NASA TN D-2854 (1965)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mee, D.J.: Uncertainties analysis of conditions in test section of the T4 shock tunnel. University of Queensland, Centre for Hypersonics Research Report No 4/93, Australia (1993)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Aerospace EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations