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Diagnosis and Therapy of the Female Urethral Diverticula

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The various diagnostic and therapeutic modalities currently in use for urethral diverticula are reviewed. Various radiographic techniques have been reported, but only voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) and positive-pressure urethrography (PPU) are currently utilized. Urethroscopy is another suitable technique for diagnosis. Various sonographic techniques have been proposed, but their sensitivity is improved only by the transvaginal approach and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Various treatment methods have been proposed. The standard operative approach is surgical, through the vagina. The techniques currently in use to treat urethral diverticula are the Spence procedure, the typical urethral diverticulectomy, and the Tancer partial ablation technique. A full history, and physical examination is the first step in screening. When the diagnosis is suspected ultrasound and radiological imaging is necessary. Sonography is the first non-invasive examination to be performed. In negative cases it is imperative to perform a PPU or MRI. Symptomatic and very large diverticula must be treated in the easiest way possible. The best treatment, except for complicated and infected diverticula, is excision.

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Fortunato, P., Schettini, M. & Gallucci, M. Diagnosis and Therapy of the Female Urethral Diverticula . Int Urogynecol J 12, 51–57 (2001).

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