Skip to main content


Log in

Assessing vaginal pressure profiles before and after prolapse surgery using an intravaginal pressure sensor (femfit®)

  • Original Article
  • Published:
International Urogynecology Journal Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Introduction and hypothesis

The impact of surgery on pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function remains uncertain. There is a pressure differential along the length of the vagina, influenced by surrounding active and passive tissue structures, giving rise to a pressure profile. The aim of this study is to determine if an intravaginal pressure sensor, femfit®, can measure differences in pressure profiles before and after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP).


This pilot study includes 22 women undergoing POP surgery. Intravaginal pressure profiles were measured with femfit® pre- and post-surgery and differences tested using paired Student’s t-tests. Patients completed validated questionnaires for vaginal, bowel, and urinary incontinence symptoms pre- and post-POP surgery and a femfit® usability questionnaire.


Sixteen sets of vaginal pressure data were analysed. The highest pressure generated was identified as the peak PFM pressure, whilst all sensor measurements provided a pressure profile. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was measured by the most distal sensor, 8. On average, the difference between peak PFM pressure and IAP was significantly greater post-surgery (p < 0.01). Urinary and vaginal symptom questionnaire scores were significantly improved after POP surgery. Femfit® usability questionnaires demonstrated high levels of patient acceptability.


Women generate higher peak PFM pressures compared to IAP post-POP surgery, with pressure profiles that are comparable to women without POP. This metric might be useful to assess the outcome of POP surgery and encourage women to maintain this profile via PFM training, potentially reducing POP recurrence risk.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Hagen S, Stark D. Conservative prevention and management of pelvic organ prolapse in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;12.

  2. Dumoulin C, Cacciari LP, Hay-Smith EJC. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;10.

  3. Wu JM, Vaughan CP, Goode PS, et al. Prevalence and trends of symptomatic pelvic floor disorders in US women. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(1):141–8.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Fialkow MF, Newton KM, Lentz GM, Weiss NS. Lifetime risk of surgical management for pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J. 2008;19:437–40.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Bump RC, Mattiasson A, Bo K, Brubaker LP, DeLancey JOL, Klarskov P, et al. The standardization of terminology of female pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor dysfunction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;175:10–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Guaderrama NM, Nager CW, Liu J, Pretorius DH, Mittal RK. Neurourol Urodynam. 2005;24:243–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Cacciari LP, Kruger J, Goodman J, Budgett D, Dumouin C. Reliability and validity of intravaginal pressure measurements with a new intravaginal pressure device: The Femfit®. Neurourol Urodynam. 2019;39(1):1–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Ashton-Miller JA, Howard D, DeLancey JOL. The functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor and stress incontinence control system. Scand J Uro Nephro. 2011;35(207):1–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Kruger J, Budgett D, Goodman J, Bo K. Can you train the pelvic floor muscles by contracting other related muscles? Neurourol Urodynam. 2019;38:677–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Sung VW, Rardin CR, Raker CA, LaSala CA, Myers DL. Changes in bowel symptoms 1 year after rectocele repair. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207:423.e1–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Hagen S, Stark D, Glazener C, Dickson S, et al. Individualised pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POPPY): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. 2014;383(9919):796–806.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Kruger J, Hayward L, Nielsen P, Loiselle D, Kirton R. Design and development of a novel intravaginal pressure sensor. Int Urogynecol J. 2013;24:1715–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Hsu Y, Coleman TJ, Hitchcock RW, Heintz K, Shaw JM, Nygaard IE. Clinical evaluation of a wireless intravaginal pressure transducer. Int Urogynecol. 2012;23(12):1741–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Coleman TJ, Thomsen JC, Maass SD, Hsu Y, Nygaard IE, Hitchcock RW. Development of a wireless intravaginal transducer for monitoring intra-abdominal pressure in women. Biomed Microdevices. 2011;14(2):347–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


Jaijus Pallippadam Johny and John Thompson assisted with data analysis.

Funding for this study was provided by a NZ government grant from Ministry of Business and Innovation and Employment (Smart Sensors for the Medical Industry).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Joy Marriott.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

Joy Marriott has no conflict of interest or financial disclaimer to declare.

DB, PN, JS, LH. and JK hold shares in Junofem Ltd.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information


PDF 68.2 kb

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Marriott, J., Pedofsky, L., Smalldridge, J. et al. Assessing vaginal pressure profiles before and after prolapse surgery using an intravaginal pressure sensor (femfit®). Int Urogynecol J 32, 3037–3044 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: