Lodde M, Mian C, Comploj E, Palermo S, Longhi E, Marberger M, et al. uCyt+ test: alternative to cystoscopy for less-invasive follow-up of patients with low risk of urothelial carcinoma. Urology. 2006;67:950–4.
Babjuk M, Bohle A, Burger M, Capoun O, Cohen D, Comperat EM, et al. EAU guidelines on non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: update 2016. Eur Urol. 2017;71:447–61.
Burger M, Catto JW, Dalbagni G, Grossman HB, Herr H, Karakiewicz P, et al. Epidemiology and risk factors of urothelial bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 2013;63:234–41.
Seklehner S, Remzi M, Fajkovic H, Saratlija-Novakovic Z, Skopek M, Resch I, et al. Prospective multi-institutional study analyzing pain perception of flexible and rigid cystoscopy in men. Urology. 2015;85:737–41.
Seklehner S, Engelhardt PF, Remzi M, Fajkovic H, Saratlija-Novakovic Z, Skopek M, et al. Anxiety and depression analyses of patients undergoing diagnostic cystoscopy. Qual Life Res. 2016;25:2307–14.
Greenstein A, Greenstein I, Senderovich S, Mabjeesh NJ. Is diagnostic cystoscopy painful? Analysis of 1,320 consecutive procedures. Int Braz J Urol. 2014;40:533–8.
Yeo JK, Cho DY, Oh MM, Park SS, Park MG. Listening to music during cystoscopy decreases anxiety, pain, and dissatisfaction in patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial. J Endourol. 2013;27:459–62.
Vasudeva P, Kumar A, Kumar N, Jha SK, Kumar R, Mohanty A, et al. Effect of intraurethral dwell time of local anesthetic jelly on pain perception in men undergoing outpatient rigid cystoscopy: a randomized prospective study. J Endourol. 2014;28:846–9.
Robinson L. Stress and anxiety. Nurs Clin N Am. 1990;25:935–43.
Wong HL, Lopez-Nahas V, Molassiotis A. Effects of music therapy on anxiety in ventilator-dependent patients. Heart Lung. 2001;30:376–87.
Ng V, Lai A, Ho V. Comparison of forced-air warming and electric heating pad for maintenance of body temperature during total knee replacement. Anaesthesia. 2006;61:1100–4.
Weerasekara RM, Tennakoon SU, Suraweera HJ. Contrast therapy and heat therapy in subacute stage of grade I and II lateral ankle sprains. Foot Ankle Spec. 2016;9:307–23.
Kim JW, Kim HJ, Park YJ, Kang SG, Park JY, Bae JH, et al. The effects of a heating pad on anxiety, pain, and distress during urodynamic study in the female patients with stress urinary incontinence. Neurourol Urodyn. 2018;37:997–1001.
Julian LJ. Measures of anxiety: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (HADS-A). Arthritis Care Res. 2011;63(Suppl 11):S467–72.
Wu PY, Huang ML, Lee WP, Wang C, Shih WM. Effects of music listening on anxiety and physiological responses in patients undergoing awake craniotomy. Complement Ther Med. 2017;32:56–60.
Collins SL, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. The visual analogue pain intensity scale: what is moderate pain in millimetres? Pain. 1997;72:95–7.
Biardeau X, Lam O, Ba V, Campeau L, Corcos J. Prospective evaluation of anxiety, pain, and embarrassment associated with cystoscopy and urodynamic testing in clinical practice. Can Urol Assoc J. 2017;11:104–10.
Yerlikaya G, Laml T, Elenskaia K, Hanzal E, Kolbl H, Umek W. Pain perception during outpatient cystoscopy: a prospective controlled study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014;173:101–5.
Choe JH, Kwak KW, Hong JH, Lee HM. Efficacy of lidocaine spray as topical anesthesia for outpatient rigid cystoscopy in women: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. Urology. 2008;71:561–6.
Patel AR, Jones JS, Angie S, Babineau D. Office based flexible cystoscopy may be less painful for men allowed to view the procedure. J Urol. 2007;177:1843–5.
Zhang ZS, Wang XL, Xu CL, Zhang C, Cao Z, Xu WD, et al. Music reduces panic: an initial study of listening to preferred music improves male patient discomfort and anxiety during flexible cystoscopy. J Endourol. 2014;28:739–44.
Seklehner S, Saratlija-Novakovic Z, Skopek M, Fajkovic H, Remzi M, Duvnjak M, et al. Prospective, multi-institutional pain assessment of 150 women undergoing diagnostic cystoscopy. Minerva Urol Nefrol. 2016;68:417–23.
Patel AR, Jones JS, Babineau D. Impact of real-time visualization of cystoscopy findings on procedural pain in female patients. J Endourol. 2008;22:2695–8.
Goldfischer ER, Cromie WJ, Karrison TG, Naszkiewicz L, Gerber GS. Randomized, prospective, double-blind study of the effects on pain perception of lidocaine jelly versus plain lubricant during outpatient rigid cystoscopy. J Urol. 1997;157:90–4.
Stein M, Lubetkin D, Taub HC, Skinner WK, Haberman J, Kreutzer ER. The effects of intraurethral lidocaine anesthetic and patient anxiety on pain perception during cystoscopy. J Urol. 1994;151:1518–21.
Song YS, Song ES, Kim KJ, Park YH, Ku JH. Midazolam anesthesia during rigid and flexible cystoscopy. Urol Res. 2007;35:139–42.
Kesari D, Kovisman V, Cytron S, Benjamin J. Effects on pain and anxiety of patients viewing their cystoscopy in addition to a detailed explanation: a controlled study. BJU Int. 2003;92:751–2.
Kwon WA, Lee JW, Seo HK, Oh TH, Park SC, Jeong HJ, et al. Hand-holding during cystoscopy decreases patient anxiety, pain, and dissatisfaction: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Urol Int. 2017;100:222–7.
Walker MR, Kallingal GJ, Musser JE, Folen R, Stetz MC, Clark JY. Treatment efficacy of virtual reality distraction in the reduction of pain and anxiety during cystoscopy. Mil Med. 2014;179:891–6.
Wang Y, Feng J, You G, Kan X, Qiu L, Chen G, et al. Heating pad for the bleeding: external warming during hemorrhage improves survival. J Trauma. 2011;71:1915–9.
Nadler SF, Steiner DJ, Erasala GN, Hengehold DA, Abeln SB, Weingand KW. Continuous low-level heatwrap therapy for treating acute nonspecific low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84:329–34.
Garra G, Singer AJ, Leno R, Taira BR, Gupta N, Mathaikutty B, et al. Heat or cold packs for neck and back strain: a randomized controlled trial of efficacy. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17:484–9.
Nuhr M, Hoerauf K, Bertalanffy A, Bertalanffy P, Frickey N, Gore C, et al. Active warming during emergency transport relieves acute low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29:1499–503.
Denegar CR, Schimizzi ME, Dougherty DR, Friedman JE, Clark JE, Comstock BA, et al. Responses to superficial heating and cooling differ in men and women with knee osteoarthritis. Physiother Theory Pract. 2012;28:198–205.