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The use of a heating pad to reduce anxiety, pain, and distress during cystoscopy in female patients

Abstract

Introduction and hypothesis

This study evaluated the effects of using a heating pad during cystoscopy on anxiety, pain, and distress in female patients.

Methods

Seventy-four female patients who underwent rigid cystoscopy between January 2017 and August 2017 were randomized to either the experimental group using a heating pad (n = 37) or the control group using a pad without heat (n = 37). In the experimental group, a heating pad was applied to the patient’s sacrum during cystoscopy. All patients completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-S (STAI-S, 20-80) before and after the procedure and assessed their degree of pain and distress after the procedure using a visual analog scale (0–10). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate were also measured before and after the procedure.

Results

Demographic characteristics, mean age, procedure duration, and pre- and post-procedural systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse rate were statistically similar between the experimental and control groups. The mean STAI-S score of the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (33.1 ± 10.1 vs 48.2 ± 11.1, p < 0.001). The experimental group had significantly lower pain and distress scores (visual analog scale, 3.8 ± 1.6 and 3.8 ± 1.8 respectively,) than the control group (6.4 ± 1.9 and 6.3 ± 2.1 respectively, both p < 0.001).

Conclusions

Using a heating pad during cystoscopy significantly reduced female patients’ anxiety, pain, and distress. We found this to be a safe, simple, and effective tool to use during cystoscopy.

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Correspondence to Mi Mi Oh.

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Kim, H.J., Kim, J.W., Park, H.S. et al. The use of a heating pad to reduce anxiety, pain, and distress during cystoscopy in female patients. Int Urogynecol J 30, 1705–1710 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-018-3786-0

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-018-3786-0

Keywords

  • Heating pad
  • Cystoscopy
  • Anxiety
  • Pain
  • Distress