International Urogynecology Journal

, Volume 29, Issue 12, pp 1807–1815 | Cite as

Urogenital symptoms: prevalence, bother, associations and impact in 22 year-old women of the Raine Study

  • Lara Stockil
  • Judith Thompson
  • Kathy Briffa
  • Anne Smith
  • Darren Beales
  • Leon Straker
  • Peter O’Sullivan
  • Angela Jacques
Original Article


Introduction and hypothesis

Urogenital symptoms are prevalent in older women, but there is little data available on the prevalence, bother, impact and associations with low back pain (LBP), obesity, parity, mental health (MH) and quality of life (QOL) in young women. Our aim was to determine the prevalence, bother and impact of urogenital symptoms and to explore associations with LBP, obesity, parity, MH and QOL in 22 year-old women.


This was a cross-sectional evaluation using data collected from 588 women in the Raine Study, a pregnancy cohort in which participants have been regularly followed up from birth until 22 years. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, univariate comparisons and linear regression models.


Prevalence of urogenital symptoms were stress urinary incontinence (SUI) 6.3%, mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) 11.5%, leakage of drops 5.8%, urge urinary incontinence (UUI) 5.3%, bothersome urinary frequency 41.5%, difficulty emptying 11.8% and urogenital pain 22.9%. Urinary frequency, MUI, difficulty emptying and urogenital pain were most bothersome, whilst difficulty emptying and urogenital pain were associated with greatest impact. Urinary frequency, SUI, leakage of drops, difficulty emptying and urogenital pain were associated with current LBP and LBP ever. Difficulty emptying and urogenital pain were associated with chronic LBP. Urogenital symptoms were not associated with obesity or parity. Women with urogenital symptoms had significantly poorer scores on the Mental Component Score of the Short Form Health Survey (SF)-12 and all aspects of the Depression Anxiety Stress Score.


Urogenital symptoms are prevalent in young women, bothersome for some and are associated with LBP, poorer MH and reduced QOL.


Lower urinary tract symptoms Mental health Prevalence Quality of life Urinary incontinence Urogenital pain 



We would like to acknowledge the Raine Study participants for their ongoing participation in the study, the families of the Raine Study participants, the Raine Study Team for study co-ordination and data collection, the UWA Centre for Science for utilisation of the facility and the Sleep Study Technicians. We would like to acknowledge the University of Western Australia (UWA), Curtin University, the Raine Medical Research Foundation, the UWA Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, the Telethon Kids Institute, the Women’s and Infant’s Research Foundation (King Edward Memorial Hospital), Edith Cowan University, Murdoch University and University of Notre Dame for providing funding for the Core Management of the Raine Study. The 22-year Raine Study follow-up was funded by NHMRC project grants 1027449, 1044840 and 1021855.


Funding was also generously provided by Safework Australia.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© The International Urogynecological Association 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Physiotherapy and Exercise ScienceCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia

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