Urogenital symptoms: prevalence, bother, associations and impact in 22 year-old women of the Raine Study
- 81 Downloads
Introduction and hypothesis
Urogenital symptoms are prevalent in older women, but there is little data available on the prevalence, bother, impact and associations with low back pain (LBP), obesity, parity, mental health (MH) and quality of life (QOL) in young women. Our aim was to determine the prevalence, bother and impact of urogenital symptoms and to explore associations with LBP, obesity, parity, MH and QOL in 22 year-old women.
This was a cross-sectional evaluation using data collected from 588 women in the Raine Study, a pregnancy cohort in which participants have been regularly followed up from birth until 22 years. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, univariate comparisons and linear regression models.
Prevalence of urogenital symptoms were stress urinary incontinence (SUI) 6.3%, mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) 11.5%, leakage of drops 5.8%, urge urinary incontinence (UUI) 5.3%, bothersome urinary frequency 41.5%, difficulty emptying 11.8% and urogenital pain 22.9%. Urinary frequency, MUI, difficulty emptying and urogenital pain were most bothersome, whilst difficulty emptying and urogenital pain were associated with greatest impact. Urinary frequency, SUI, leakage of drops, difficulty emptying and urogenital pain were associated with current LBP and LBP ever. Difficulty emptying and urogenital pain were associated with chronic LBP. Urogenital symptoms were not associated with obesity or parity. Women with urogenital symptoms had significantly poorer scores on the Mental Component Score of the Short Form Health Survey (SF)-12 and all aspects of the Depression Anxiety Stress Score.
Urogenital symptoms are prevalent in young women, bothersome for some and are associated with LBP, poorer MH and reduced QOL.
KeywordsLower urinary tract symptoms Mental health Prevalence Quality of life Urinary incontinence Urogenital pain
We would like to acknowledge the Raine Study participants for their ongoing participation in the study, the families of the Raine Study participants, the Raine Study Team for study co-ordination and data collection, the UWA Centre for Science for utilisation of the facility and the Sleep Study Technicians. We would like to acknowledge the University of Western Australia (UWA), Curtin University, the Raine Medical Research Foundation, the UWA Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, the Telethon Kids Institute, the Women’s and Infant’s Research Foundation (King Edward Memorial Hospital), Edith Cowan University, Murdoch University and University of Notre Dame for providing funding for the Core Management of the Raine Study. The 22-year Raine Study follow-up was funded by NHMRC project grants 1027449, 1044840 and 1021855.
Funding was also generously provided by Safework Australia.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
- 1.Milsom I, Altman D, Cartwright R, Lapitan M, Nelson R, Sillén U, et al. Committee 1: epidemiology of urinary incontinence (UI) and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and anal incontinence (AI). In: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, editors. Incontinence. 5th international consultation on incontinence, vol committee 1. Paris: ICUD-EAU; 2013. p. 15–107.Google Scholar
- 2.Abrams P, Smith AP, Cotterill N. The impact of urinary incontinence on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a real-world population of women aged 45–60 years: results from a survey in France, Germany, the UK and the USA. BJU Int. 2015;115(1):143–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/bju.12852.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 3.Engeler D, Baranowski A, Borovicka J, Dinis-Oliveira P, Elneil S, Hughes J, Messelink E, de Williams AC, Cottrell A, Goonewardene S (2016) EAU GUIDELINES ON CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN. European Association of Urology. Accessed 21/02/2017 2016.Google Scholar
- 4.Coyne KS, Kvasz M, Ireland AM, Milsom I, Kopp ZS, Chapple CR. Urinary incontinence and its relationship to mental health and health-related quality of life in men and women in Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Eur Urol. 2012;61(1):88–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2011.07.049.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 8.Schreiber Pedersen L, Lose G, Hoybye MT, Elsner S, Waldmann A, Rudnicki M. Prevalence of urinary incontinence among women and analysis of potential risk factors in Germany and Denmark. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2017; https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13149.
- 9.Straker L, Mountain J, Jacques A, White S, Smith AP, Landau L, Stanley F, Newnham J, Pennell C, Eastwood P (2017) Cohort Profile: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study-Generation 2. Int J Epidemiol.Google Scholar
- 10.Uebersax JS, Wyman JF, Shumaker SA, McClish DK. Short forms to assess life quality and symptom distress for urinary incontinence in women: the incontinence impact questionnaire and the urogenital distress inventory. Neurourol Urodyn. 1995;14(2):131–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/nau.1930140206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Staskin D, Kelleher C, Bosch R, Cotterill N, Coyne K, Kelleher C, et al. Initial assessment of urinary incontinence in adult male and female patients (5A) patient-reported outcome assessment (5B). In: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A, editors. Incontinence. 5th international consultation on incontinence, vol committee 5. Paris: ICUD-EAU; 2013. p. 361–428.Google Scholar
- 15.World Health Organization (2016) BMI classification. World Health Organization. Accessed 15 June 2016 2016.Google Scholar
- 18.Lovibond SH, Lovibond PF (1995) Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales. Psychology Foundation.Google Scholar
- 19.Irwin DE, Milsom I, Hunskaar S, Reilly K, Kopp Z, Herschorn S, et al. Population-based survey of urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, and other lower urinary tract symptoms in five countries: results of the EPIC study. Eur Urol. 2006;50(6):1306–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2006.09.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 25.Beales D, O’Sullivan P. A person-centred biopsychosocial approach to assessment and management of pelvic girdle pain. In: Grieve’s modern musculoskeletal physiotherapy. London: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015. p. 488–95.Google Scholar
- 29.Moore K, Dumoulin C, Bradley C, Burgio K, Chambers T, Hagen S, et al. Adult conservative management. In: incontinence: 5th international consultation on incontinence. Paris: ICUD-EAU; 2013.Google Scholar