Vaginal hysterectomy with apical fixation and anterior vaginal wall repair for prolapse: surgical technique and medium-term results
- 55 Downloads
Introduction and hypothesis
Stabilization of the vaginal apex (level 1) is an important component of operations to correct pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We report functional and anatomical results and patient-reported outcomes of our technique of vaginal vault fixation at the time of vaginal hysterectomy.
One hundred and nine patients—mean 69 years, range 50.4–83.8; body mass index (BMI) 26.3, range 17.7–39.5—with symptomatic stage 2–3 uterine prolapse combined with stage 3–4 cystocele underwent vaginal hysterectomy with anterior vaginal wall repair; the apex was formed with high closure of the peritoneum and incorporation of the uterosacral and round ligaments. Only absorbable sutures were used. Follow-up included clinical examination with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system (POP-Q) scoring, introital ultrasonography, quality of life (QoL) Likert scale, and the German Pelvic Floor Questionnaire.
Seventy patients (64%) were available for a follow-up after a mean of 2.8 years (range, 1.6–4.2). At follow-up, point C was stage 0 in 55 (78.6%) women and stage 1 in 15 (21.4%). The anterior vaginal wall was stage 0 or 1 in 35 (50%), stage 2 (no cystocele beyond the hymen) in 34 (49%), and stage 3 in 1 (1.4%). Vaginal length (VL) was 9 cm. Four women (4%) were reoperated for prolapse: two for recurrent anterior compartment prolapse and two for de novo rectocele. Postvoid residuals >150 ml were seen in 21(30%) patients preoperatively and resolved postoperatively in 20. Urgency occurred in nine (13%), stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in ten (14%), and nocturia in 19 (27%). No patient had discomfort at the vaginal vault and 62 patients (87%) reported improved QoL, which did not correlate with anatomical results. Cystocele ≥ 2° at follow-up was associated with BMI >25 (p = 0.03).
Our surgical technique without permanent material offers good apical support and functional and subjective results. Anatomical improvement was achieved in all cases of cystocele repair. Recurrent cystoceles are often asymptomatic.
KeywordsVaginal vault fixation Apical support Prolapse Vaginal hysterectomy Native tissue repair
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
- 5.Moschcowitz AV. The pathogenesis, anatomy, and cure of prolapse of the rectum. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1912;15:7–12.Google Scholar
- 14.Florian-Rodrigues ME, et al. Inferior gluteal and other nerves associated with sacrospinous ligament: a cadaver study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;215:646.e1-e6.Google Scholar
- 15.Weiblicher Descensus genitalis, Diagnostik und Therapie. AWMF Registry No. 015–006, April 2016.Google Scholar
- 18.Barber MD, Maher C. Epidemiology and outcome assessment of POP. IUJ. 2013;24:1783–90.Google Scholar