Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 91, Issue 12, pp 1435–1446 | Cite as

A two-step ionospheric modeling algorithm considering the impact of GLONASS pseudo-range inter-channel biases

Original Article


The Global Navigation Satellite System presents a plausible and cost-effective way of computing the total electron content (TEC). But TEC estimated value could be seriously affected by the differential code biases (DCB) of frequency-dependent satellites and receivers. Unlike GPS and other satellite systems, GLONASS adopts a frequency-division multiplexing access mode to distinguish different satellites. This strategy leads to different wavelengths and inter-frequency biases (IFBs) for both pseudo-range and carrier phase observations, whose impacts are rarely considered in ionospheric modeling. We obtained observations from four groups of co-stations to analyze the characteristics of the GLONASS receiver P1P2 pseudo-range IFB with a double-difference method. The results showed that the GLONASS P1P2 pseudo-range IFB remained stable for a period of time and could catch up to several meters, which cannot be absorbed by the receiver DCB during ionospheric modeling. Given the characteristics of the GLONASS P1P2 pseudo-range IFB, we proposed a two-step ionosphere modeling method with the priori IFB information. The experimental analysis showed that the new algorithm can effectively eliminate the adverse effects on ionospheric model and hardware delay parameters estimation in different space environments. During high solar activity period, compared to the traditional GPS + GLONASS modeling algorithm, the absolute average deviation of TEC decreased from 2.17 to 2.07 TECu (TEC unit); simultaneously, the average RMS of GPS satellite DCB decreased from 0.225 to 0.219 ns, and the average deviation of GLONASS satellite DCB decreased from 0.253 to 0.113 ns with a great improvement in over 55%.


GLONASS Ionospheric modeling Pseudo-range inter-frequency bias 



This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (41604017 and 41404010), National Key Research and Development Plan (2016YFD0800301), as well as Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (2013B020314016 and 2015B010110006).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rui Zhang
    • 1
    • 6
  • Yi-bin Yao
    • 2
  • Yue-ming Hu
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • Wei-wei Song
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Natural Resources and EnvironmentSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Geodesy and GeomaticsWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  3. 3.Research Center of GNSSWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  4. 4.Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Land Use and ConsolidationGuangzhouChina
  5. 5.Guangdong Province Engineering Research Center for Land Information TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  6. 6.Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Land and Resources for Construction Land TransformationGuangzhouChina

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