Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 90, Issue 11, pp 1255–1278 | Cite as

Single-frequency, dual-GNSS versus dual-frequency, single-GNSS: a low-cost and high-grade receivers GPS-BDS RTK analysis

  • Robert OdolinskiEmail author
  • Peter J. G. Teunissen
Original Article


The concept of single-frequency, dual-system (SF-DS) real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning has become feasible since, for instance, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has become operational in the Asia-Pacific region. The goal of the present contribution is to investigate the single-epoch RTK performance of such a dual-system and compare it to a dual-frequency, single-system (DF-SS). As the SF-DS we investigate the L1 GPS + B1 BDS model, and for DF-SS we take L1, L2 GPS and B1, B2 BDS, respectively. Two different locations in the Asia-Pacific region are analysed with varying visibility of the BDS constellation, namely Perth in Australia and Dunedin in New Zealand. To emphasize the benefits of such a model we also look into using low-cost ublox single-frequency receivers and compare such SF-DS RTK performance to that of a DF-SS, based on much more expensive survey-grade receivers. In this contribution a formal and empirical analysis is given. It will be shown that with the SF-DS higher elevation cut-off angles than the conventional \(10^{\circ }\) or \(15^{\circ }\) can be used. The experiment with low-cost receivers for the SF-DS reveals (for the first time) that it has the potential to achieve comparable ambiguity resolution performance to that of a DF-SS (L1, L2 GPS), based on the survey-grade receivers.


Low-cost receiver High-grade receiver Multi-GNSS BeiDou (BDS) GPS Integer ambiguity resolution Real time kinematic (RTK) positioning 



Provision of GNSS observation data for OTAG was made from Matej Cerny at Trimble and for OUS3 by Dr. Marcus Ramatschi at Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam. Callum Johns collected the ublox data during his summer work at School of Surveying, University of Otago. The second author is the recipient of an Australian Research Council (ARC) Federation Fellowship (Project Number FF0883188). All this support is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National School of SurveyingUniversity of OtagoDunedinNew Zealand
  2. 2.Department of Spatial Sciences, GNSS Research CentreCurtin University of TechnologyPerthAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Geoscience and Remote SensingDelft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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