Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 81, Issue 5, pp 351–358 | Cite as

Influence of ambiguity precision on the success rate of GNSS integer ambiguity bootstrapping

  • P. J. G. TeunissenEmail author
Original Article


In this contribution, we study the dependence of the bootstrapped success rate on the precision of the GNSS carrier phase ambiguities. Integer bootstrapping is, because of its ease of computation, a popular method for resolving the integer ambiguities. The method is however known to be suboptimal, because it only takes part of the information from the ambiguity variance matrix into account. This raises the question in what way the bootstrapped success rate is sensitive to changes in precision of the ambiguities. We consider two different cases. (1) The effect of improving the ambiguity precision, and (2) the effect of using an approximate ambiguity variance matrix. As a by-product, we also prove that integer bootstrapping is optimal within the restricted class of sequential integer estimators.


GNSS ambiguity resolution Integer bootstrapping Ambiguity precision 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Delft Institute for Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS)Delft University of TechnologyDelftThe Netherlands

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