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Table 4 Variable definitions and transformations

From: Forecasting inflation in the euro area: countries matter!

Country Variable Frequency Transformation
France (FR) HICP M 4*Log-levels
  HICP excluding energy and unprocessed food M 4*Log-levels
 Producer price index M 4*Log-levels
 Real GDP Q 4*Log-levels
 Unit labour cost Q 4*Log-levels
 EC consumer survey of inflation expectations M Raw
Germany (DE) HICP M 4*Log-levels
 HICP excluding energy and unprocessed food M 4*Log-levels
 Producer price index M 4*Log-levels
 Real GDP Q 4*Log-levels
 Unit labour cost Q 4*Log-levels
 EC consumer survey of inflation expectations M Raw
Italy (IT) HICP M 4*Log-levels
 HICP excluding energy and unprocessed food M 4*Log-levels
 Producer price index M 4*Log-levels
 Real GDP Q 4*Log-levels
 Unit labour cost Q 4*Log-levels
 EC consumer survey of inflation expectations M Raw
Spain (ES) HICP M 4*Log-levels
 HICP excluding energy and unprocessed food M 4*Log-levels
 Producer price index M 4*Log-levels
 Real GDP Q 4*Log-levels
 Unit labour cost Q 4*Log-levels
 EC consumer survey of inflation expectations M Raw
Euro area (EA) Oil price (Dollars per barrel) M 4*Log-levels
 Exchange rate M Raw
 HICP M 4*Log-levels
  HICP excluding energy and unprocessed food M 4*Log-levels
  Producer price index M 4*Log-levels
  Real GDP Q 4*Log-levels
  Unit labour cost M 4*Log-levels
  EC consumer survey of inflation expectations M Raw