The impact of color palettes on the prices of paintings

Abstract

We emphasize that color composition is an important characteristic of a painting. It impacts the auction price of a painting, but it has never been considered in previous studies on art markets. By using Picasso’s paintings and paintings of Color Field Abstract Expressionists sold in Chrisite’s and Sotheby’s auctions in New York between 1998 and 2016, we demonstrate the method to analyze color compositions: How to extract color palettes from a painting image and how to measure color characteristics. We propose two measures: (1) the surface occupied by specific colors, (2) color diversity of a painting composition. Controlling for all conventional painting and sale characteristics, our empirical results find significant evidence of contrastive paintings, i.e., paintings with high diversity of colors, carrying a premium than equivalent artworks which are performed in monochromatic style. In the case of Picasso’s paintings, our econometric analysis shows that some colors are associated with high prices.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    In several studies, the subject of a painting (landscape, portrait, etc.) or the number of figures [in the case of figurative works] has been considered as price explanatory variables (Etro and Pagani 2012, 2013; Etro and Stepanova 2016, 2017). But these studies focus on the Old Masters where the classification of subjects is unambiguous. Modern Art, in turn, presents a puzzle for defining subjects. A possible solution is to use the artist’s age [under the assumption that paintings done in the same year are close in style] (Galenson 2000; Hodgson 2011; Hellmanzik 2009).

  2. 2.

    Neuroscientists who studied human reaction to the abstract art confirm that color characteristics of paintings play crucial role (Mallon et al. 2014).

  3. 3.

    We thank our referee for pointing this out to us. Later version of this paper is published as Pownall and Graddy (2016).

  4. 4.

    Further discussion of Pownall (2014) follows in the next section.

  5. 5.

    The price is equal to the auction hammer price plus the buyer’s premium. The buyer’s premia are included as these differ from period to period and, more importantly, between auction houses.

  6. 6.

    In the period 1942–1978, Christian Zervos produced 34 volumes of catalogue raisonnee, in which most of Picasso’s works are registered. This registration is considered to be a proof of authenticity, and it is assumed to influence prices. In our case, Christie’s and Sotheby’s only auction authentic works and in the Provenance indicate, apart from Christian Zervos catalogue raisonnee, other important art catalogs. So the variable “mentioned in more than 2 art books” means that the painting is mentioned not only in Christian Zervos catalogue raisonnee but in some other art catalogs. Pre-auction catalog information refers to extremely prominent and influential publications. It is reasonable to expect that Christie’s and Sotheby’s use valuable catalog space to report the fact that the piece has been reproduced in a book only if it is perceived as an important work of reference. We expect such references to have a positive effect on prices.

  7. 7.

    Works on paper and collages are usually drafts of his oil paintings with prevailing use of black and white colors to sketch the objects, so we do not want to consider these works in our analyses of Picasso’s color palette.

  8. 8.

    In a small number of cases, auction catalogs on Web sites are not available for free. Alternative solutions are the online databases artvalue.com and artsalesindex.artinfo.com

  9. 9.

    As color brightness and gradients are rounded off, it is not critical that there may be differences in the brightness of an image due to the amount of external light hitting the object. We also do not need high image resolution, i.e., a larger amount of pixels (a color is associated with each pixel), because we round off colors to the principal ones. Actually, the color quantizing algorithm is a workhorse tool in computer science used to reduce the memory weight of an image (image resolution) while preserving its color characteristics.

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Correspondence to Elena Stepanova.

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Additional information

All images of artworks used in the paper are obtained from free online database artvalue.com.

Appendix

Appendix

See Tables 3, 4 and Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.

Table 3 Descriptive statistics (Picasso’s paintings sold in New York in 1998–2016)
Table 4 Descriptive statistics (Color Field Abstract Expressionists paintings sold in New York in 1998–2016)
Fig. 4
figure4

Distribution of the diversity of the painting colors (Picasso and Color Field Abstract Expressionists artworks). (Color figure online)

Fig. 5
figure5

Example of paintings that belong to the blue-teal cluster. (Color figure online)

Fig. 6
figure6

Example of paintings that belong to the orange cluster. (Color figure online)

Fig. 7
figure7

Fixed effects of Picasso’s working periods (Table 1) and the number of artworks from each period in our dataset. Note: The reference period, the Blue and Rose Period (1902–1906), is set up to 1. Bars indicate the number of works belonging to a particular working period. The works that belong to the blue-teal cluster are in blue, the works that belong to the orange cluster are in orange, the rest of the works from a particular period that do not belong to neither of the two clusters are in gray. (Color figure online)

Fig. 8
figure8

Price indexes of Picasso’s paintings and paintings of Color Field Abstract Expressionists sold in New York. Note: Reference period is 1998–1999, and it is set up to 1. (Color figure online)

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Stepanova, E. The impact of color palettes on the prices of paintings. Empir Econ 56, 755–773 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00181-017-1413-4

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Keywords

  • Art markets
  • Hedonic pricing
  • Picasso
  • Rothko
  • Visual perception
  • Color
  • Color quantizing

JEL Classifications

  • Z11
  • C810