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Discrimination in grading: experimental evidence from primary school teachers


This paper studies the effect of teacher expectations on essay grades in an experimental setting. For this purpose, we randomly assign Turkish or German first names to a set of essays so that some teachers believe a given essay was written by a German native pupil, whereas others believe it was written by a pupil of Turkish origin. We find that the same essays obtain significantly worse grades and lower secondary school recommendations when bearing a Turkish sounding name.

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Correspondence to Maresa Sprietsma.

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Sprietsma, M. Discrimination in grading: experimental evidence from primary school teachers. Empir Econ 45, 523–538 (2013).

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  • Discrimination
  • Migrant background
  • Grading
  • Field experiment

JEL Classification

  • I20
  • I24
  • C93