Empirical Economics

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 891–913 | Cite as

The ‘trendiness’ of sleep: an empirical investigation into the cyclical nature of sleep time

  • Pierre Brochu
  • Catherine Deri ArmstrongEmail author
  • Louis-Philippe Morin


Using Canadian time use data, we exploit variation in local unemployment rates to investigate the cyclical nature of sleep time and show that for both men and women, sleep time decreases when the economy is doing relatively better. Our results suggest that in a recession Canadians sleep an average of 3 h more per week, or 26 min more per day. Given the importance of even small changes in sleep time on measures of cognitive functioning such as reaction time and concentration, our findings may help explain the countercyclical nature of mortality. Further, as we find that sleep is affected by the same economic variables (notably the unemployment rate) that affect market work time, our results also contribute to the limited literature that shows that sleep time should not be treated as exogenously determined, but, like any other resource, determined by its relative cost.


Business cycles Sleep Time allocation 

JEL Classification

I12 J22 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre Brochu
    • 1
  • Catherine Deri Armstrong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Louis-Philippe Morin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

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