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Hot-press bending technology of the 5A06 alloy high-stiffener integral panel: constitutive equation, simulation, and experiment

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The hot press bend process of the 5A06 aluminum alloy high-stiffener integral panels was studied by FEM simulations and experiments. The high-temperature deformation behaviors and microstructures were tested by the high-temperature uniaxial tensile tests and the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), respectively. A set of physically-based constitutive equations and its VUMAT user subroutine, including dislocation density, grain size, and deformation damage, were established. The effects of forming parameters and blank size on the forming quality of the high-stiffener integral panel were studied. The main typical defects were the surface groove, side face curvature and inclination, springback, and wrinkle of the stiffener. The high-stiffener integral panels should be bent above 350 °C and kept for more than 20 min under a pressure of 8 MPa.

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Data availability

Most of the data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article; part of the EBSD analysis data used for constitutive equations is available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Code availability

The code used to establish the physically-based constitutive equations is not published, but it is available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 51805256).


This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 51805256).

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Authors and Affiliations



YW contributed to the conception of the study, the constitutive equations, and part of the manuscript.

XZ contributed to the simulation analysis and wrote the manuscript.

DW performed the experiment and analyzed the experiment data.

ZQ performed the material tensile test and analyzed the data.

BL performed the EBSD analysis and prepared the data.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yong Wu.

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Wu, Y., Zhou, X., Wu, D. et al. Hot-press bending technology of the 5A06 alloy high-stiffener integral panel: constitutive equation, simulation, and experiment. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 129, 2537–2550 (2023).

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