Skip to main content

Aspheric lens processing of chalcogenide glass via combined PGM-SPDT process


Chalcogenide glass (ChG) is widely studied due to its wide infrared transmission window, low refractive index temperature coefficient, and low dispersion coefficient. Precision glass molding (PGM) and single-point diamond turning (SPDT) are representative high-efficiency and high-precision methods for ChG processing. However, the high softening degree of ChG under high-temperature conditions leads to abnormal gas release and severe mold adhesion which deteriorate surface quality. Although SPDT typically facilitates high-precision machining, it has limited efficacy in long-term, large-area, large-depth processing; this limitation causes severe tool wear due to the high hardness and brittleness of ChG material. A new process combining the advantages of PGM and SPDT technology is proposed to fabricate aspheric lenses on ChG (IRG202) by ultra-precision and high-efficiency machining. The pre-molding of ChG by PGM reduces cutting loss during aspheric lens machining by SPDT. The machined aspheric lenses have the high quality with a form error of PV 103.5 nm and surface roughness Ra of 8.3 nm. The processing efficiency of each single lens is increased by almost 8 times over the traditional method. The proposed ChG aspheric lens fabrication process maintains high precision even under mass production conditions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14


  1. Sanghera JS, Shaw LB, Aggarwal ID (2002) Applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers. C R Chim 5:873–883.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Danto S, Houizot P, Boussard-Pledel C, Zhang XH, Smektala F, Lucas J (2006) A family of far-infrared-transmitting glasses in the ga–ge–te system for space applications. Adv Funct Mater 16(14):1847–1852.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Wilhelm AA, Boussard-Pledel C, Coulombier Q, Lucas J, Bureau B, Lucas P (2007) Development of far infrared-transmitting te based glasses suitable for carbon dioxide detection and space optics. Adv Mater 19(22):3796–3800.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bae D, Yeo J, Lee H (2013) A study on a production and processing technique for a GeSbSe aspheric lens with a mid-infrared wavelength band. J Korean Phys Soc 62(11):1610–1615.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bureau B, Zhang XH, Smektala F, Adam J, Troles J, Hong-Li M et al (2004) Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses. J Non-Cryst Solids 345–346:276–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Kulakova NA, Nasyrov AR, Nesmelova IM (2010) Current trends in creating optical systems for the IR region. J Opt Technol 77(5):324.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Song B, Yang Y, Jia Z, Chen F, Lin C, Dai S et al (2013) Optical loss and residual stress measurement of infrared chalcogenide glasses and analysis on its influencing factors. In: International Conference on Optics in Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology. 87693R.

  8. Zhou T, Yan J, Masuda J, Oowada T, Kuriyagawa T (2011) Investigation on shape transfer ability in ultraprecision glass molding press for microgrooves. Precis Eng 35(2):214–220.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Cha DH, Kim H, Park HS, Hwang Y, Kim J, Hong J et al (2010) Effect of temperature on the molding of chalcogenide glass lenses for infrared imaging applications. Appl Opt 49(9):1607–1613.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Yan J, Tamaki JI, Syoji K, Kuriyagawa T (2004) Single-point diamond turning of CaF2 for nanometric surface. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 24(9–10):640–646.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Troutman JR, Owen JD, Zare A, Harriman TA, Lucca DA, Davies MA (2016) Cutting mechanics and subsurface integrity in diamond machining of chalcogenide glass. Procedia CIRP. 45:135–138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Troutman JR, Barnhardt DL, Shultz JA, Owen JD, Defisher S, Davies MA et al (2016) Machining and metrology of a chalcogenide glass freeform lens pair. Procedia Manuf 5:669–683.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Davies MA, Evans CJ, Patterson SR, Vohra V, Bergner BC (2003). Application of precision diamond machining to the manufacture of micro-photonics components. In: Proceedings of spie; Bellingham WA: 94–108.

  14. Zhou T, Zhou Q, Xie J, Liu X, Wang X, Ruan H (2018) Elastic-viscoplasticity modeling of the thermo-mechanical behavior of chalcogenide glass for aspheric lens molding. Int J Appl Glass Sci. 9(2):252–262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Zhou T, Liu X, Liang Z, Liu Y, Xie J, Wang X (2017) Recent advancements in optical microstructure fabrication through glass molding process. Front Mech Eng 12(1):46–65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Owen JD, Davies MA, Schmidt D, Urruti EH (2015) On the ultra-precision diamond machining of chalcogenide glass. CIRP Ann 64(1):113–116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Arsecularatne JA (1997) On tool-chip interface stress distributions ploughing force and size effect in machining. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 7(37):885–899.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Cai MB, Li XP, Rahman M (2007) Study of the mechanism of nanoscale ductile mode cutting of silicon using molecular dynamics simulation. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 47(1):75–80.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Liu B, Fang F, Li R, Xu Z, Liang Y (2018) Experimental study on size effect of tool edge and subsurface damage of single crystal silicon in nano-cutting. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 98(5–8):1093–1101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Huang W, Yan J (2020) Surface formation mechanism in ultraprecision diamond turning of coarse-grained polycrystalline ZnSe. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 153:103554.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51775046, 51875043, 52005040), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2019M660480), and the Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation (JQ20014).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tianfeng Zhou.

Ethics declarations

Ethical statement

Authors state that the research was conducted according to ethical standard.

Consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhou, T., Zhang, C., He, Y. et al. Aspheric lens processing of chalcogenide glass via combined PGM-SPDT process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 120, 5855–5864 (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: