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Parameter optimization for laser welding of dissimilar aluminum alloy: 5052-H32 and 6061-T6 considering wobbling technique

Abstract

The wobbling technique which consists of oscillating the laser beam at high frequency and in a specific pattern is an innovative way to enhance the quality of weld. The wobbling widens the area covered by the laser beam resulting in a wider seam that provides improved mechanical properties. The study investigated the effect of parameters such as the laser power, the gap between the two butt-welded plates, and the amplitude of oscillation using Taguchi’s method by setting a L9 design of experiments. The laser power level has a low range as the spot diameter is kept at a very small size to increase the power density and improve the energy efficiency of the laser welding process. The results revealed the optimal welding set-up and conditions to enhance the mechanical properties of welds. The value of laser power and the amplitude is optimized relatively to the ultimate tensile strength and the weld shape expressed by the depth to width ratio (D/W) that is correlated to the ductility. A fitness function combined with the steepest descent method applied to regression analysis allows figuring out the optimal parameters defined by the value of laser power at 1118 W and an amplitude of 0.8 mm resulting in a predicted welded part with 206.8 MPa of tensile strength and 4.5% of ductility.

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Availability of data and material

Data available on request from the authors.

Abbreviations

AA:

Aluminum alloy

Adj MS:

Adjusted mean squares

Adj SS:

Adjusted sum of squares

Al:

Aluminum

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

ASTM:

American Society for Testing and Materials

BM:

Base metal

D/W:

Depth to width ratio

DoF:

Degree of freedom

EDS:

Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

FZ:

Fusion zone

h:

Defect measurements

HAZ:

Heat-affected zone

HBF4:

Tetrafluoroboric acid

HV:

Vickers hardness

K:

Degree Kelvin

kW:

Kilowatt

L:

Liter

m:

Meter

Mg:

Magnesium

min:

Minute

mm:

Millimeter

MPa:

Megapascal

N amp :

Amplitude normalized value

N LP :

Laser power normalized value

N uts :

Ultimate tensile strength normalized value

OM:

Optical microscope

R-sq:

Coefficient of determination

s:

Second

SCFH:

Standard cubic feet per hour

Seq SS:

Sequential sum of squares

Si:

Silicium

SiC:

Silicon carbide

t:

Thickness

UTS:

Ultimate Tensile Strength

V:

Volt

W:

Watt

w 1 :

Importance weight of tensile strength

w 2 :

Importance weight of laser power

w 3 :

Importance weight of amplitude

 ∝ n:

Iteration interval steps

μm:

Micrometer

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge Eric Stiles et Garrett Larrimore from IPG Photonics, Novi (MI), USA, for the completion and assistance to laser welding experiments.

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Herinandrianina Ramiarison and Noureddine Barka are at the origin of this research project by proposing the approach and the methodology to address the problematic. Chris Pilcher with his team carried out all the welding experiments. Fatemeh Mirakhorli and François Nadeau brought their expertise in the aluminum field and metallurgy in results analysis. All authors discussed the results and contributed to the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Herinandrianina Ramiarison.

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Ramiarison, H., Barka, N., Mirakhorli, F. et al. Parameter optimization for laser welding of dissimilar aluminum alloy: 5052-H32 and 6061-T6 considering wobbling technique. Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-021-08122-y

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Keywords

  • Beam wobbling
  • Laser welding
  • Aluminum alloys
  • Taguchi and ANOVA method
  • Microstructure characterization
  • Mechanical property