Single toroidal roller burnishing of 2024-T3 Al alloy implemented as mixed burnishing process


Based on a comprehensive experimental study, single toroidal roller burnishing (STRB) of the 2024-T3 Al alloy can be successfully implemented as a mixed burnishing process. Optimum values of various governing factors provided minimum roughness and significant enhancement of the fatigue life of the treated specimens. With a planned experiment, regression analysis, and optimization procedure based on a genetic algorithm, the optimum factor values were established under a minimum roughness criterion. The derived model predicted a minimum roughness Ra = 0.074 μm. The experiment with optimal process parameters provided an average roughness (Ra) of 0.01 μm. STRB under these optimal conditions yields a relatively homogeneous surface in terms of microhardness with a surface microhardness increase coefficient of 37.6%. The parametric study of the residual surface hoop and axial stresses conducted via X-ray stress analysis shows that the STRB with near-optimal process parameters introduces significant residual stresses. STRB of the 2024-T3 Al alloy, implemented as a mixed burnishing process, produces a mirror-finish surface, improves the fatigue life by more than 2000 times, and increases the conventional fatigue limit by 35.1% compared to the reference condition.

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Computer numerical control


Hydrostatic ball burnishing


Low plasticity burnishing


Mechanical surface treatment


Single roller burnishing


Single toroidal roller burnishing

A 5 :


D :

External diameter of the toroidal deforming roller

d :

Workpiece (specimen) diameter

f :

Feed rate

F b :

Burnishing force

k HV :

Surface microhardness increase coefficient

n :

Number of passes

N :

Number of cycles to failure

r :

Radius of the toroid of the toroidal deforming roller

R :

Cycle asymmetry coefficient

R a :

Surface roughness

s i :

X-ray elastic constant

v :

Burnishing velocity

x i :

Coded variables

\( {\tilde{x}}_i \) :

Natural variables

Y Ra :

Objective function of the roughness

σ−1 :

Fatigue limit for symmetrical cycle

σ u :

Ultimate stress

σ Y :

Yield limit

\( {\sigma}_t^{res} \) :

Residual hoop stress

\( {\sigma}_z^{res} \) :

Residual axial stress

ψ :

Transverse contraction


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This work was supported by the European Regional Development Fund within the OP “Science and Education for Smart Growth 2014-2020,” Project CoC “Smart Mechatronics, Eco- and Energy Saving Systems and Technologies,” no. BG05М2ОР001-1.002-0023.

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Correspondence to G. V. Duncheva.

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Duncheva, G.V., Maximov, J.T., Dunchev, V.P. et al. Single toroidal roller burnishing of 2024-T3 Al alloy implemented as mixed burnishing process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 111, 3559–3570 (2020).

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  • 2024-T3 Al alloy
  • Single toroidal roller burnishing
  • Roughness
  • Microhardness
  • Residual stresses
  • Fatigue life enhancement