Characterization of material flow in friction stir-assisted incremental forming with synchronous bonding of dissimilar sheet metals


Material flow is evaluated to investigate the mechanism of pin-less friction stir-assisted incremental forming with synchronous bonding (FS-ISF&SB) process in a macro and micro scope. Dissimilar metal sheets AA5052-H32 and DC05 are incrementally formed with synchronously bonding by this novel process. Analytical mechanical models combined with microscopic image reveal that materials experience severe but different flow modes during the process. To make clear the underlying forming mechanism, the fabricated part is divided into three zones: wall flow zone (WFZ), rotation flow zone (RFZ), and bump structure flow zone (BSFZ). Bonding may even appear at Fe-Al interface to produce Fe-Al intermetallic compound in WFZ and RFZ, which depends on uncoordinated deformation controlled by mechanical force coupled with heat. Contributed to the torque transfer applied by forming tool, obvious wall side deflection in WFZ and grain refinement at the near surface area in RFZ are observed. Based on the simulation characterization, thermal effect is considered to build force frame on the deformation element for making semi-quantitative investigation of softening effect on BSFZ. This work prompts a better understanding of the underlying mechanism of this process and establishing the process window for potential industrial applications.

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Step down (mm)

μ :

Coefficient of friction

v :

Feed rate (mm/s)

ω :

Forming tool rotation speed (rpm)

\( \overline{\varepsilon} \) :

Equivalent plastic strain

T r :

Room temperature (°C)

R t :

Tool radius (mm)

T melt :

Material melting temperature (°C)

εt, εφ, εθ :

Strain in thickness, tangential, and circumferential directions

σt, σφ, σθ, τ :

Normal stress in thickness, tangential, circumferential directions, and shear stress (MPa)

tU, tL :

Current thickness of upper and lower layer (mm)

k,n :

Coefficient in material hardening rule

K,n :

Coefficients in Hollomon material hardening rule

r h :

Part radius at current height (mm)

\( \overline{\upsigma} \) :

Equivalent stress (MPa)

θ :

Circumferential contact angle (°)

t 0 :

Initial sheet thickness (mm)

σs :

Yield stress (MPa)

β :

Forming angle (°)

R d :

Designed maximum opening radius of part (mm)

σtb :

Boundary stress in thickness direction (MPa)


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The authors received financial funding from National Natural Science Foundation of China under grant # 51675332 and Program of Shanghai Excellent Academic Research Leadership (19XD1401900).

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Correspondence to Jun Chen.

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Wu, R., Li, M., Liu, X. et al. Characterization of material flow in friction stir-assisted incremental forming with synchronous bonding of dissimilar sheet metals. Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2020).

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  • Material flow
  • Dissimilar bonding
  • Incremental forming
  • Pin-less friction stir
  • Macro-microscopic mechanism