Skip to main content
Log in

Analysing significant process parameters for friction stir welding of polymer composite

  • Published:
The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


This research deals with the performance of friction stir welding (FSW) process and its application on composite material with the analysis of weld strength. The objective is to analyse the weld strength by optimising process parameters at different levels. The FSW is carried out at industrial grades by using locally available customised polycarbonate (PC) whereas the fibreglass (FG) is used as composite material in this research. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher’s least significant difference test are employed. The reason is to compare the mean shear strength of welds produced by FSW among different composition materials having composite material by weight, i.e. 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, with machine parameters, i.e. feed rate, rotation speed, and tool profile. The experiments suggested that PC with 15% FG produce highest mean strength under same process parameters and also exhibit the highest mean shear strength to base material. The materials have shown significant difference in their mean shear strength after analysis through Fisher’s LSD method. In the 2nd phase, Taguchi and ANOVA methods were applied to evaluate the effect of tool rotation, feed, and tool design on FSW using PC with 15% FG by weight. The Taguchi analysis using quality characteristic “Larger the Better” suggests that the rotation of tool is the most significant factor that affects the weld strength. The material produces better strength at high rotation speed of 1250 rpm and produces better strength at feed rate of 12 mm/s and tool type conical threaded pin design.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Thomas W, Nicholas E (1997) Friction stir welding for the transportation industries. Mater Des 18:269–273

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Thomas WM, Nicholas ED, Needham JC, Murch MG, Templesmith P, Dawes CJ. Friction Stir Butt Welding. Int. Patent App PCT/GB92/02203 and GB Patent App 9125978.8, December 1991. US patent no. 5,460,317, October 1995

  3. Barcellona A, Buffa G, Fratini L, Palmeri D (2006) On microstructural phenomena occurring in friction stir welding of aluminium alloys. J Mater Process Technol 177:340–343

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Ahmadi H, Arab NM, Ghasemi FA (2014) Optimization of process parameters for friction stir lap welding of carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites by Taguchi method. J Mech Sci Technol 28:279–284

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bagheri A, Azdast T, Doniavi A (2013) An experimental study on mechanical properties of friction stir welded ABS sheets. Mater Des 43:402–409

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Panaskar N, Terkar R (2016) Study of joining different types of polymers by friction stir welding. In CAD/CAM, robotics and factories of the future, Springer: New Dehli; pp. 731–739

    Google Scholar 

  7. Gibson B, Lammlein D, Prater T, Longhurst W, Cox C, Ballun M, Dharmaraj K, Cook G, Strauss A (2014) Friction stir welding: process, automation, and control. J Manuf Process 16:56–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Sahu PK, Pal S (2015) Multi-response optimization of process parameters in friction stir welded AM20 magnesium alloy by Taguchi grey relational analysis. J Magnesium Alloys 3:36–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Unnikrishnan MA, Edwin Raja DJ (2017) A survey on friction stir welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 247:012009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ahmadi H, Arab NBM, & Ghasemi FA (2012) Application of Taguchi method to optimize friction stir welding parameters for polypropylene composite lap joints. Arch Sci, 65(7)

  11. Liu G, Murr L, Niou C, McClure J, Vega F (1997) Microstructural aspects of the friction-stir welding of 6061-T6 aluminum. Scr Mater 37:355–361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Buffa G, Campanile G, Fratini L, Prisco A (2009) Friction stir welding of lap joints: influence of process parameters on the metallurgical and mechanical properties. Mater Sci Eng A 519:19–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Vagh A, Pandya S (2012) Influence of process parameters on the mechanical properties of friction stir welded AA 2014-T6 Alloy using Taguchi orthogonal array. Int J Eng Sci Emerging Technol 2:51–58

    Google Scholar 

  14. Koilraj M, Sundareswaran V, Vijayan S, Rao SK (2012) Friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA2219 to AA5083–optimization of process parameters using Taguchi technique. Mater Des 42:1–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Gao J, Li C, Shilpakar U, Shen Y (2016) Microstructure and tensile properties of dissimilar submerged friction stir welds between HDPE and ABS sheets. The international journal of advanced manufacturing technology 1;87(1-4):919–927

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Akinlabi ET, Akinlabi SA (2012) Friction stir welding process: a green technology. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 71:1536–1538

  17. Boulahem K, Salem SB, Bessrour J (2015) Surface roughness model and parametric welding optimization in friction stir welded AA2017 using taguchi method and response surface methodology. Design and Modeling of Mechanical Systems-II. Springer, Cham, pp 83–93

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  18. Bozkurt Y (2012) The optimization of friction stir welding process parameters to achieve maximum tensile strength in polyethylene sheets. Mater Des 35:440–445

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Gao J, Shen Y, Xu H (2016) Investigations for the mechanical, macro-, and microstructural analyses of dissimilar submerged friction stir welding of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polycarbonate sheets. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 230(7):1213–1220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Anil Kumar KS, Karur AS, Chipli S, Singh A (2015) Optimization of FSW parameters to improve the mechanical properties of AA2024-T351 similar joints using Taguchi method. J Mech Eng Auto 5:27–32

    Google Scholar 

  21. Amirizad M, Kokabi A, Gharacheh MA, Sarrafi R, Shalchi B, Azizieh M (2006) Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties in friction stir welded A356+ 15% SiC p cast composite. Mater Lett 60:565–568

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Panneerselvam K, Lenin K (2014) Joining of Nylon 6 plate by friction stir welding process using threaded pin profile. Mater Des 53:302–307

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Watanabe T, Kagiya K, Yanagisawa A, Tanabe H (2006) Solid state welding of steel and magnesium alloy using a rotating pin. Quarterly Journal of The Japan Welding Society 24(1):108–115

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Kumar K, Kailas SV, Srivatsan TS (2008) Influence of tool geometry in friction stir welding. Mater Manuf Process 23:188–194

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Scialpi A, De Filippis L, Cavaliere P (2007) Influence of shoulder geometry on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 6082 aluminium alloy. Mater Des 28:1124–1129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Zhao Y-H, Lin S-B, Wu L, Qu F-X (2005) The influence of pin geometry on bonding and mechanical properties in friction stir weld 2014 Al alloy. Mater Lett 59:2948–2952

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Eslami S, Tavares PJ, Moreira PMGP (2017) Friction stir welding tooling for polymers: review and prospects. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(5–8):1677–1690

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Mostafapour A, Azarsa E (2012) A study on the role of processing parameters in joining polyethylene sheets via heat assisted friction stir welding: Investigating microstructure, tensile and flexural properties. Int J Phys Sci 7:647–654

    Google Scholar 

  29. Mendes N, Loureiro A, Martins C, Neto P, Pires J (2014) Morphology and strength of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene welds performed by robotic friction stir welding. Mater Des 64:81–90

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Jo B-W, Park S-K, Kim D-K (2008) Mechanical properties of nano-MMT reinforced polymer composite and polymer concrete. Constr Build Mater 22:14–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Taguchijeve U, FSW V-TP (2010) Application of grey relation analysis (GRA) and Taguchi method for the parametric optimization of friction stir welding (FSW) process. Mater Tehnol 44:205

    Google Scholar 

  32. Vidal C, Infante V (2013) Optimization of FS welding parameters for improving mechanical behavior of AA2024-T351 joints based on Taguchi method. J Mater Eng Perform 22:2261–2270

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Song M, Kovacevic R (2003) Numerical and experimental study of the heat transfer process in friction stir welding. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 217:73–85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Krishnaiah K, Shahabudeen P (2012) Applied design of experi- ments and Taguchi methods; PHI learning Pvt. ltd., eastern economy edition, New Delhi-110001

  35. Alo F, Atanda P, Daniyan A, Abodunrin O, Oluwasegun K (2017) An Assessment of imported and local constructional steel in Nigeria: analysis by one-way ANOVA. Int J Mater Eng 7:45–51

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Muhammad Omair.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ishraq, M.Y., Maqsood, S., Naeem, K. et al. Analysing significant process parameters for friction stir welding of polymer composite. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 105, 4973–4987 (2019).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: