Skip to main content

Water absorption behaviour on the mechanical properties of woven hybrid reinforced polyester composites

Abstract

Water absorption restrains the mechanical performance of natural fibre reinforced matrix polymer. This paper aims to investigate the influence of water absorption on the different types of natural woven fibre reinforced with polyester resin. The water absorption and thickness swelling study were performed by an immersed composite sample in the distilled water for 30 days. The mechanical performance testing such as tensile testing, flexural and impact was performed on the single and hybrid composite. Based on the results obtained, water absorption of the single type and hybrid composite sample yield about 3–6%. Furthermore, the effect of thickness of swelling is at a minimum. The result of the tensile properties reveals that the layering size has more influence than the layering sequences. The flexural properties are likely to be affected by the type of fabric fabricated on the top. The results of the Charpy impact test show that there is possibly less variation for the value regardless of the layering sequence and the layering size. The water absorption drops the tensile strength about 12–27% and tensile modulus for 15–35% on the 30th day. The result shows that the resistance toward water absorption improved significantly toward hybridisation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

References

  1. 1.

    Hao M, Hu Y, Wang B, Liu S (2017) Mechanical behavior of natural fiber-based isogrid lattice cylinder. Compos Struct 176:117–123

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kılınç AÇ, Durmuşkahya C, Seydibeyoğlu MÖ (2017) Natural fibers. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 209–235

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Shah AUR, Prabhakar M, Song J-I (2017) Current advances in the fire retardancy of natural fiber and bio-based composites–A review. Int J Pr Eng Man GT 4(2):247–262

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Jaafar J, Siregar JP, Oumer AN, Hamdan MHM, Tezara C, Salit MS (2018) Experimental investigation on performance of short pineapple leaf fiber reinforced tapioca biopolymer composites. BioResources 13(3):6341–6355

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Siregar JP, Jaafar J, Cionita T, Jie CC, Bachtiar D, Rejab MRM, Asmara YP (2019) The effect of maleic anhydride polyethylene on mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polylactic acid composites. Int J Pr Eng Man GT 6(1):110–112

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Mohammed L, Ansari MN, Pua G, Jawaid M, Islam MS (2015) A review on natural fiber reinforced polymer composite and its applications. Int J Polym Sci 2015:1–15

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Holbery J, Houston D (2006) Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications. JOM 58(11):80–86

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Mastura M, Sapuan S, Mansor M, Nuraini A (2018) Materials selection of thermoplastic matrices for ‘green’natural fibre composites for automotive anti-roll bar with particular emphasis on the environment. Int. J. Pr. Eng. Man.-GT 5(1):111–119

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Sanjay M, Arpitha G, Naik LL, Gopalakrishna K, Yogesha B (2016) Applications of natural fibers and its composites: an overview. Nat Res 7(03):108–114

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Jaafar J, Siregar JP, Mohd Salleh S, Hamdan MH, Cionita T, Rihayat T (2019) Important considerations in manufacturing of natural fiber composites: a review. Int J Pr Eng Man GT. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40684-019-00097-2

  11. 11.

    Puglia D, Biagiotti J, Kenny J (2005) A review on natural fibre-based composites—part II: application of natural reinforcements in composite materials for automotive industry. J Nat Fibers 1(3):23–65

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Alamri H, Low IM (2012) Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of n-SiC filled recycled cellulose fibre reinforced epoxy eco-nanocomposites. Polym Test 31(6):810–818

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Penjumras P, Rahman RA, Talib RA, Abdan K (2015) Mechanical properties and water absorption behaviour of durian rind cellulose reinforced poly (lactic acid) biocomposites. IJASEIT 5(5):343–349

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Wang W, Sain M, Cooper P (2006) Study of moisture absorption in natural fiber plastic composites. Compos Sci Technol 66(3–4):379–386

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Gupta M, Srivastava R (2016) Mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of hybrid sisal/jute fiber reinforced polymer composite. Indian J Eng Mater Sci 23:231–238

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Misnon MI, Islam MM, Epaarachchi JA, Wang H, Lau K-t (2016) Woven hemp fabric reinforced vinyl ester composite: effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties degradation. IJASEAT 4(3):96–101

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Deng H, Reynolds C, Cabrera N, Barkoula N-M, Alcock B, Peijs T (2010) The water absorption behaviour of all-polypropylene composites and its effect on mechanical properties. Compos Part B 41(4):268–275

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Sreekumar P (2009) Water absorption and ageing behaviour of natural fiber composites, Archives Contemporaines, Paris, 446–472

  19. 19.

    Lima Sobrinho L, Ferreira M, Bastian FL (2009) The effects of water absorption on an ester vinyl resin system. Mater Res 12(3):353–361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Mariatti M, Jannah M, Abu Bakar A, Khalil HA (2008) Properties of banana and pandanus woven fabric reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. J Compos Mater 42(9):931–941

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Jamiluddin J, Siregar JP, Sulaiman A, Jalal KAA, Tezara C (2016) Study on properties of tapioca resin polymer. Int J Auto Mech Eng 13(1):3178–3189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Pandian A, Vairavan M, Jebbas Thangaiah WJ, Uthayakumar M (2014) Effect of moisture absorption behavior on mechanical properties of basalt fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites. J Compos 2014:1–8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Srubar WV III, Frank CW, Billington SL (2012) Modeling the kinetics of water transport and hydroexpansion in a lignocellulose-reinforced bacterial copolyester. Polymer 53(11):2152–2161

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Gassan J, Mildner I, Bledzki A (1999) Influence of fiber structure modification on the mechanical properties of flax fiber-epoxy composites. Mech Compos Mater 35(5):435–440

  25. 25.

    Joshi SV, Drzal L, Mohanty A. Arora S (2004) Are natural fiber composites environmentally superior to glass fiber reinforced composites?. Composite part A 35(3):371–376

  26. 26.

    Korkees F, Alston S. Arnold C (2018) Directional diffusion of moisture into unidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy Composites: Experiments and modeling, Polym Composite 39(S4): E2305–E2315

  27. 27.

    Kittikorn T, Strömberg E, Ek M, Karlsson SJB (2013) Comparison of water uptake as function of surface modification of empty fruit bunch oil palm fibres in PP biocomposites. BioResources 8(2):2998–3016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Ahmed KS, Vijayarangan S (2008) Tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear properties of woven jute and jute-glass fabric reinforced polyester composites. J Mater Process Technol 207(1–3):330–335

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Bagherpour S (2012) Fibre reinforced polyester composites. InTech, London

    Book  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Venkateshwaran N, Elaya Perumal AJF (2012) Mechanical and water absorption properties of woven jute/banana hybrid composites. Fibre Polym 13(7):907–914

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Jawaid M, Khalil HA, Bakar AAJMS (2011) Woven hybrid composites: tensile and flexural properties of oil palm-woven jute fibres based epoxy composites. Mater Sci Eng A 528(15):5190–5195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Achukwu E, Dauda B, Ishiaku U (2015) Effects of fabric pattern on the mechanical properties of cotton fabric/unsaturated polyester composites. Br J Appl Sci Technol 11(4):1–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Ismail AE, Aziz CA, Aswadi M (2015) Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. JMES 9:1695–1704

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Samivel P, Babu ARJIJ o ME, Research R (2013) Mechanical behavior of stacking sequence in kenaf and banana fiber reinforced-polyester laminate. IJMERR 10:2

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Hamdan A, Mustapha F, Ahmad K, Mohd Rafie A, Ishak M, Ismail AJIJ o PS (2016) The effect of customized woven and stacked layer orientation on tensile and flexural properties of woven kenaf fibre reinforced epoxy composites. Int J Polym Sci 2016

  36. 36.

    Rashdi A, Sapuan S, Ahmad M, Khalina AJIJ o M, Engineering M (2010) Combined effects of water absorption due to water immersion, soil buried and natural weather on mechanical properties of Kenaf fibre unsaturated polyester composites (KFUPC). IJMME 5(1):11–17

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Tezara C, Siregar JP, Lim H, Fauzi F, Yazdi MH, Moey L et al (2016) Factors that affect the mechanical properties of kenaf fiber reinforced polymer: A review. JMES 10(2):2159–2175

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

The authors received support from the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Automotive Centre, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, through the facility, equipment and financial through internal research grant of RDU180335.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Januar Parlaungan Siregar.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hamdan, M.H.M., Siregar, J.P., Cionita, T. et al. Water absorption behaviour on the mechanical properties of woven hybrid reinforced polyester composites. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 104, 1075–1086 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-03976-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Natural fibre
  • Jute
  • Ramie
  • Roselle
  • Water absorption
  • Mechanical properties