Advertisement

Densification behaviour and the effect of heat treatment on microstructure, and mechanical properties of sintered nickel-based alloys

  • Neo KekanaEmail author
  • Mxolisi B. Shongwe
  • Oluwagbenga T. Johnson
  • Bukola J. BabalolaEmail author
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

The present work focused on the densification behaviour and heat treatment effect on the mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Ni–Fe–Al–Cr alloys. Five initial alloys were prepared by mixing of elemental compositions of each alloy followed by sintering. The five alloys, Ni–30Fe–20Cr, Ni–30Fe–15Cr–5Al, Ni–30Fe–10Cr–10Al, Ni–30Fe–5Cr–15Al, and Ni–30Fe–20Al, were sintered at sintering temperature of 950 °C, pressure of 50 MPa, heating rate of 150 °C/min, and at a holding time of 10 min and heat-treated. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the sintered alloys were investigated prior to and after heat treatment by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a Future-tech Vickers microhardness tester respectively. Results showed that the relative density of the alloys increases as the aluminium content increases. The microhardness increases at 800 °C for 2 h ageing time and decreases after prolonged ageing. Therefore, optimum strengthening of sintered nickel alloys can be obtainable within short duration of ageing as prolonged results in adverse hardness values.

Keywords

Heat treatment Nickel-based superalloys Spark plasma sintering Mechanical properties Gamma prime 

Notes

Funding information

This work is based on the research supported by the National Research Foundation of South Africa for the grant, Unique Grant No. 99348.

References

  1. 1.
    Kitaguchi H Microstructure-property relationship in advanced Ni-based superalloys, metallurgy. In: Advances in Materials and Processes 2012Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hussein MA, Suryanarayana C, Arumugam MK, al-Aqeeli N (2015) Effect of sintering parameters on microstructure, mechanical properties and electrochemical behavior of Nb–Zr alloy for biomedical applications. Mater Des 83:344–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Parthasarathi NL, Duraiselvam M (2010) Improvement of high temperature wear resistance of AISI 316 ASS through NiCrBSiCFe plasma spray coating. J Miner Mater Charact Eng 9:653–670Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Somayeh P et al (2015) Oxide dispersion strengthened nickel based alloys via spark plasma sintering. Mater Sci Eng A 630:155–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Özgün Ö, Özkan Gülsoy H, Yilmaz R, Findik F (2013) Injection molding of nickel based 625 superalloy: sintering, heat treatment, microstructure and mechanical properties. J Alloys Compd 546:192–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Babalola BJ et al (2019) A study of nanocrystalline nickel powders developed via high-energy ball milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol:1–9Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Babalola BJ, Maledi N, Shongwe MB, Bodunrin MO, Obadele BA, Olubambi PA (2019) Influence of nanocrystalline nickel powder on oxidation resistance of spark plasma sintered Ni-17Cr6.5Co1.2Mo6Al4W7.6Ta alloy. JKSUES.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksues.2019.01.002
  8. 8.
    Babalola BJ et al (2018) Densification, microstructure and mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Ni-17%Cr binary alloys. Int J Adv Manuf TechnolGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Borkar T, Banerjee R (2014) Influence of spark plasma sintering (SPS) processing parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel. Mater Sci Eng A 618:176–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gaona-Tiburcio C et al (2014) Electrochemical noise analysis of nickel based superalloys in acid solutions. Int J Electrochem Sci 9:523–533Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moravcik I, Cizek J, Gavendova P, Sheikh S, Guo S, Dlouhy I (2016) Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 high entropy alloy. Mater Lett 174:53–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Babalola BJ, Shongwe MB, Obadele BA, Olubambi PA, Ayodele OO, Rominiyi AL, Jeje SO (2018) Comparative study of spark plasma sintering features on the densification of Ni-Cr binary alloys. MATEC Web Conf 249:01004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang X, Mi G, Li S, Hu X, Wang C, Zhang Y (2018) Study of microstructural inhomogeneity and its effects on mechanical properties of multi-layer laser welded joint. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94(5–8):2163–2174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shongwe MB, Diouf S, Durowoju MO, Olubambi PA (2015) Effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe-30%Ni alloys produced by spark plasma sintering. J Alloys Compd 649:824–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luke M, Butt D, Frary M (2010) Comparison of microstructural evolution of nickel during conventional and spark plasma sintering, 139th edn. Annual Meeting & ExhibitionGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhao X, Dang Y, Yin H, Lu J, Yuan Y, Yang Z, Yan J, Gu Y (2016) Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure of a Ni–Fe based superalloy for advanced ultra-supercritical power plant applications. Prog Nat Sci - Mater 26(2):204–209Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen S, Qu S, Liang J, Han J (2011) Effects of heat treatment on mechanical properties of ODS nickel-based superalloy sheets prepared by EB-PVD. Rare Metals 30(1):76–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Popovich V et al (2017) Impact of heat treatment on mechanical behaviour of Inconel 718 processed with tailored microstructure by selective laser melting. Mater Des 131:12–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Adegbenjo AO et al (2016) Dependence of densification, hardness and wear behaviours of Ti6Al4V powders on sintering temperature. Int J Chem Mol Nucl Mater Metall Eng 10:5Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Makena MI, Shongwe MB, Ramakokovhu MM, Olubambi PA (2017) Effect of sintering parameters on densification, corrosion and wear behaviour of Ni-50Fe alloy prepared by spark plasma sintering. J Alloys Compd 699:1166–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hashemi SH (2011) Strength–hardness statistical correlation in API X65 steel. Mater Sci Eng A 528(3):1648–1655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    El-Bagoury N, Ramadan M (2012) Heat treatment effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of re-containing Inconel 718 alloy. J Miner Mater Charact Eng 11(09):924–930Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bowman R (2000) Superalloys: a primer and history. In: 9th International Symposium on SuperalloysGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pessah-Simonetti M, Caron P, Khan T (1993) Effect of a long-term prior aging on the tensile behaviour of a high-performance single crystal superalloy. Le Journal de Physique IV 3(C7):C7–347-C7-350Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of NanoEngineering Research, Department of Chemical, Metallurgy & Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built EnvironmentTshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Mining and Metallurgical EngineeringUniversity of NamibiaOngwedivaNamibia

Personalised recommendations