5-axis grinding path generation for free-form surface based on plane instantaneous grinding engagements

  • Neng WanEmail author
  • Chao Xia
  • Heng Zhao
  • Sentang Zhang


Grinding is an important process to remove the material efficiently. Before the finish machining, it is necessary to remove the cusps by the wider grinding band for obtaining more uniform allowance. In this paper, the grinding wheel hold by the multi-axis machine tool is introduced into the free-form surface grinding. The engagement between the wheel and the to-be-ground surface is established for generating the paths. An instantaneous engagement model is proposed in terms of machine tool kinematic chain, and the spatial engagement is represented on a group of planes. Based on the engagement model, the grinding path generation for enlarging bands is transformed into an optimization. Different with traditional path generation, a slight local overcut is allowed on the wheel locations. However, the envelope of grinding engagements is limited in the required boundaries to satisfy the design tolerance. They are realized by adjusting the contact locations and orientations of the wheel. At last, a compressor blade is used to verify the advantages about the proposed path generation method.


Grinding wheel Instantaneous grinding edge Instantaneous engagement Free-form surface 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Funding information

This study received financial support from the National Natural Science Foundations of China (Grant Nos. 51775445 and 51475381), the Xi’an science and technology project (201805042YD20CG26-(9)), and the Aeronautical Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2017ZE53053).


  1. 1.
    Ren X, Kuhlenkotter B, Muller H (2006) Simulation and verification of belt grinding with industrial robots. Int J Mach Tool Manu 46(7–8):708–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ren X, Cabaravdic M, Zhang X, Kuhlenkotter B (2007) A local process model for simulation of robotic belt grinding. Int J Mach Tool Manu 47(6):962–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang W, Yun C (2011) A path planning method for robotic belt surface grinding. Chin J Aeronaut 24(4):520–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McDonald A, Mohamed AO, Warkentin A, Bauer RJ (2017) Kinematic simulation of the uncut chip thickness and surface finish using a reduced set of 3D grinding wheel measurements. Precis Eng 49:169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Siebrecht T, Rausch S, Kersting P, Biermann D (2014) Grinding process simulation of free-formed WC-Co hard material coated surfaces on machining centers using passion-disk sampled dexel representations. J Manuf Sci Technol 7(2):168–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Huang X, Gao Y (2010) A discrete system model for form error control in surface grinding. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 50(3):219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gao Y, Huang X, Zhang Y (2010) An improved discrete system model for form error control in surface grinding. J Mater Process Technol 210(13):1794–1804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang YZ, Fang CF, Huang GQ, Xu XP (2018) Modeling and simulation of the distribution of undeformed chip thicknesses in surface grinding. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 127:14–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shen YB, Liu X, Li DY, Li ZP (2018) A method for grinding face gear of double crowned tooth geometry on a multi-axis CNC machine. Mech Mach Theory 121:460–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ding WF, Dai CW, Yu TY, Xu JH, Fu YC (2017) Grinding performance of textured monolayer CBN wheels: undeformed chip thickness nonuniformity modeling and ground surface. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 122:66–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xie J, Zheng JH, Zhou RM, Lin B (2011) Dispersed grinding wheel profiles for accurate freeform surfaces. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 51(6):536–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xie J, Deng ZJ, Liao JY, Li N, Zhou H, Ban WX (2016) Study on a 5-axis precision and mirror grinding of glass freeform surface without on-machine wheel-profile truing. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 109:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guo CS (2012) Modeling and simulation of mold and die grinding. J Manuf Sci Eng 134(4):041007-1-041007-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Denkena B, Kohler J, Wang B (2010) Manufacturing of functional riblet structures by profile grinding [J]. J Manuf Sci Technol 3(1):14–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Denkena B, Turger A, Behrens L, Krawczyk T (2012) Five-axis-grinding with toric tools: a status review. J Manuf Sci Technol 134(5):054001-1: 054001-6Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xie J, Zhou RM, Xu J, Zhong YG (2010) Form-truing error compensation of diamond grinding wheel in CNC envelope grinding of free-form surface. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 48(9–12):905–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhou YS, Chen ZZ, Yang XJ (2015) An accurate, efficient envelope approach to modeling the geometric deviation of the machined surface for a specific five-axis CNC machine tool. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 95:67–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of EducationNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.AECC Shenyang Liming Aero Engine Corporation LTD.ShenyangChina

Personalised recommendations