Equivalent parameters-based residual thermal stress fields modeling and design for square coated indexable cutting inserts

  • Fengyun Wang
  • Kuanmin Mao
  • Hua YingEmail author
  • Yamin Zhu
  • Ling Yin


Residual stresses may cause coating indexable inserts to delaminate during machining. To meet the demands of long tool life, low costs, high efficiency, and accuracy in industry, it is critical to know the magnitude and distribution of residual stress fields. An equivalent parameters-based modeling method is proposed to predict residual thermal stress fields for square coated indexable cutting inserts. The parameter equivalent formulas are deduced and the finite element implementation is described. The effectiveness of the approach is verified using inserts with a single coating (e.g., titanium carbide (TiC) and titanium nitride (TiN)) and multilayer coatings (e.g., TiC/TiN) by comparison with theoretical values and experimental results. In addition, some important techniques in coated inserts design and manufacturing for coated inserts were obtained by studying influence parameters via the method. A key feature of the method is that it can provide details on all stress components to facilitate a better understanding of the stress induced during cooling of square coated indexable cutting inserts. Moreover, it would provide an important theoretical basis for the design, manufacture, and selection of coated indexable inserts, and the prediction results can be considered as the initial stress fields to evaluate the performance of inserts in high-speed machining more accurately.


Residual thermal stresses Multilayer coatings Equivalent parameter Finite element analysis Coated indexable cutting inserts 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This work was supported by the National High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (grant numbers 2015AA043302).


  1. 1.
    Plews JA, Duarte CA (2016) A two-scale generalized finite element approach for modeling localized thermoplasticity. Int J Numer Methods Eng 108(10):1123–1158MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Klocke F, Krieg T (1999) Coated tools for metal cutting—features and applications. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 48(2):515–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Haubner R (2013) The history of hard CVD coatings for tool applications at the University of Technology Vienna. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 41(3):22–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mao KM, Zhu M, Xiao WW, Li B (2014) A method of using turning process excitation to determine dynamic cutting coefficients. Int J Mach Tool Manu 87:49–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Krajinović I, Daves W, Tkadletz M, Teppernegg T, Klünsner T, Schalk N, Mitterer C, Tritremmel C, Ecker W, Czettl C (2016) Finite element study of the influence of hard coatings on hard metal tool loading during milling. Surf Coat Technol 304:134–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhao J, Yuan X, Zhou Y (2010) Cutting performance and failure mechanisms of an Al2O3 /WC/TiC micro- nano-composite ceramic tool. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 28(3):330–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thakur A, Gangopadhyay S (2016) State-of-the-art in surface integrity in machining of nickel-based super alloys. Int J Mach Tool Manu 100:25–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Haubner R, Lessiak M, Pitonak R, Kopf A, Weissenbacher R (2017) Evolution of conventional hard coatings for its use on cutting tools. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 62:210–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gonzalo O, Navas VG, Coto B, Bengoetxea I, Gopegi URD, Etxaniz M (2011) Influence of the coating residual stresses on the tool wear. Procedia Eng 19(1):106–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ortner HM, Ettmayer P, Kolaska H (2014) The history of the technological progress of hardmetals. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 44:148–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mcgrann RTR, Greving DJ, Shadley JR, Rybicki EF, Kruecke TL, Bodger BE (1998) The effect of coating residual stress on the fatigue life of thermal spray-coated steel and aluminum. Surf Coat Technol 108–109(1):59–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cheng Y, Xu M, Guan R, Liu L, Qian J (2016) Generation mechanism of insert residual stress while cutting 508III steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(1–4):247–255Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khor KA, Gu YW (2000) Thermal properties of plasma-sprayed functionally graded thermal barrier coatings. Thin Solid Films 372(1–2):104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mohsan AUH, Liu ZQ, Padhy GK (2017) A review on the progress towards improvement in surface integrity of Inconel 718 under high pressure and flood cooling conditions. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(1–4):107–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nazemi N, Urbanic J, Alam M (2017) Hardness and residual stress modeling of powder injection laser cladding of P420 coating on AISI 1018 substrate. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 93(9–12):3485–3503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Evans AG, Hutchinson JW (1995) The thermomechanical integrity of thin films and multilayers. Acta Metall Mater 43(7):2507–2530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang JS, Evans AG (1998) Measurement and analysis of buckling and buckle propagation in compressed oxide layers on superalloy substrates. Acta Mater 46(14):4993–5005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Choi SR, Hutchinson JW, Evans AG (1999) Delamination of multilayer thermal barrier coatings. Mech Mater 31(7):431–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yu HH, He MY, Hutchinson JW (2001) Edge effects in thin film delamination. Acta Mater 49(1):93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yuan F, Wang S, Li Y, Wang L, Zhang C (2014) Generation and measurements of residual stresses in coating for aeroengine. Aeronaut Manuf Technol 452(8):8–11Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haider J, Hashmi MSJ (2010) Improving the deposition rate of multicomponent coating by controlling substrate table rotation in a magnetron sputtering process. Adv Mater Res 83-86:977–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Haubner R, Lessiak M, Pitonak R, Köpf A, Weissenbacher R (2016) Evolution of conventional hard coatings for its use on cutting tools. Int J Refract Met Hard Metal 62(Part B):210–218Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Riedl A, Schalk N, Czettl C, Sartory B, Mitterer C (2012) Tribological properties of Al 2 O 3 hard coatings modified by mechanical blasting and polishing post-treatment. Wear 289(25):9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Toller L, Liu C, Holmström E, Larsson T, Norgren S (2016) Investigation of cemented carbides with alternative binders after CVD coating. Int J Refract Met Hard MaterGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hayase T, Waki H, Hasebe Y (2017) Evaluation method of the residual stresses in thermal barrier coating system based on the curvature of the three-layered specimen. J Soc Mater Sci Jpn 66(2):150–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pina J, Dias A, Lebrun JL (2003) Study by X-ray diffraction and mechanical analysis of the residual stress generation during thermal spraying. Mater Sci Eng A 347(1–2):21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tayal A, Gupta M, Gupta A, Ganesan V, Behera L, Singh S, Basu S (2014) Study of magnetic iron nitride thin films deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering. Surf Coat Technol 275:264–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Weirather T, Chladil K, Sartory B, Caliskanoglu D, Cremer R, Kölker W, Mitterer C (2014) Increased thermal stability of Ti 1−x Al x N/TiN multilayer coatings through high temperature sputter deposition on powder-metallurgical high-speed steels. Surf Coat Technol 257:48–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wimpory RC, Ohms C, Hofmann M, Schneider R, Youtsos AG (2009) Statistical analysis of residual stress determinations using neutron diffraction. Int J Press Vessel Pip 86(1):48–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ya M, Marquette P, Belahcene F, Lu J (2004) Residual stresses in laser welded aluminium plate by use of ultrasonic and optical methods. Mater Sci Eng A 382(1–2):257–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maxwell AS, Turnbull A (2003) Measurement of residual stress in engineering plastics using the hole-drilling technique. Polym Test 22(2):231–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bendek E, Lira I, François M, Vial C (2006) Uncertainty of residual stresses measurement by layer removal. Int J Mech Sci 48(12):1429–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang SH, Ma KM, Ma J (2004) Method of measuring the residual stress distribution in pre-stretched aluminum alloy plate 7075T7351. J Air Force Eng Univ Nat Sci Ed 5(3)18–21Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yan J, Karlsson AM, Chen X (2007) Determining plastic properties of a material with residual stress by using conical indentation. Int J Solids Struct 44(11–12):3720–3737CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chen X, Yan J, Karlsson AM (2006) On the determination of residual stress and mechanical properties by indentation. Mater Sci Eng A 416(1–2):139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Marzbanrad B, Jahed H, Toyserkani E (2018) On the evolution of substrate's residual stress during cold spray process: a parametric study. Mater Des 138:90–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sebastiani M, Sui T, Korsunsky AM (2017) Residual stress evaluation at the micro- and nano-scale: recent advancements of measurement techniques, validation through modelling, and future challenges. Mater Des 118:204–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang FY, Mao KM, Wu SG, Du YK, Mao XB (2017) Prediction of residual stress field in milling planes by establishing bivariate mathematical models. In: J Detand, D Ruxu, JA Self, J Gunsing (eds) 2017 2nd International Conference on Mechanical, Manufacturing, Modeling and Mechatronics, vol 104. MATEC Web of Conferences. E D P Sciences, Cedex A.
  39. 39.
    Wang FY, Mao KM, Li B (2018) Prediction of residual stress fields from surface stress measurements. Int J Mech Sci 140:68–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tsui YC, Clyne TW (1997) An analytical model for predicting residual stresses in progressively deposited coatings part 2: cylindrical geometry. Thin Solid Films 306(1):34–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Haider J, Rahman M, Corcoran B, Hashmi MSJ (2005) Simulation of thermal stress in magnetron sputtered thin coating by finite element analysis. J Mater Process Technol 168(1):36–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Özel A, Ucar V, Mimaroglu A, Calli I (2000) Comparison of the thermal stresses developed in diamond and advanced ceramic coating systems under thermal loading. Mater Des 21(5):437–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Schicker J, Khan WA, Arnold T, Hirschl C (2017) Stress-warping relation in thin film coated wafers. Model Simul Mater Sci Eng 25(2):025005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Peyre P, Chaieb I, Braham C (2007) FEM calculation of residual stresses induced by laser shock processing in stainless steels. Model Simul Mater Sci Eng 15(3):205–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Li AH, Zhao J, Zang J, Zheng W (2016) Design and simulation of thermal residual stresses of coatings on WC-Co cemented carbide cutting tool substrate. J Mech Sci Technol 30(8):3777–3783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wu LF, Zhu JG, Xie HM (2014) Numerical and experimental investigation of residual stress in thermal barrier coatings during APS process. J Therm Spray Technol 23(4):653–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Zhou L, Ni J, He Q (2007) Study on failure mechanism of the coated carbide tool. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 25(1):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Yuan Z, Liu H (1999) Tool design manual. China Machine Press, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Xiong Z (2002) The most pleasant room temperature and humidity. Builders’ Monthly (3):62Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fengyun Wang
    • 1
  • Kuanmin Mao
    • 2
  • Hua Ying
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yamin Zhu
    • 2
  • Ling Yin
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Electromechanical Automobile EngineeringYantai UniversityYantaiChina
  2. 2.School of Mechanical Science and EngineeringHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  3. 3.School of Mechanical EngineeringDongguan University of TechnologyDongguanChina

Personalised recommendations