3D laser shock peening as a way to improve geometrical accuracy in selective laser melting

  • Nikola KalenticsEmail author
  • Andreas Burn
  • Michael Cloots
  • Roland E. Logé


One of the major drawbacks of selective laser melting (SLM) is the accumulation of tensile residual stresses (TRS) in the surface and subsurface zones of produced parts which can lead to cracking, delamination, geometrical distortions, and a decrease in fatigue life. 3D laser shock peening (3D LSP) is a novel hybrid method which introduces a repetitive LSP treatment during the manufacturing phase of the SLM process. In this paper, the ability of 3D LSP to convert TRS into beneficial compressive residual stresses and their subsequent effect on the geometrical accuracy of produced parts were investigated. Samples made of Ti6Al4V were manufactured with the 3D LSP process and treated with different processing parameters. Cuboidal samples were used for residual stress measurements, and the evolution of residual stresses was evaluated. Geometrical distortions were measured on bridge-like samples, and the influence on the final sample geometry was quantified. A significant improvement in geometrical accuracy resulting from reduced distortions was observed in all selected 3D LSP processing conditions.


3D laser shock peening Selective laser melting Laser shock peening Distortion Geometrical accuracy Ti6Al4V 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The generous support of PX Group to the LMTM laboratory is highly acknowledged.

Funding information

This work was financially supported by the CTI project n°25357.2 PFNM-NM.


  1. 1.
    Mercelis P, Kruth J-P (2006) Residual stresses in selective laser sintering and selective laser melting. Rapid Prototyp J 12(5):254–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zaeh MF, Branner G (2010) Investigations on residual stresses and deformations in selective laser melting. Prod Eng 4(1):35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li C, Fu CH, Guo YB, Fang FZ (2015) Fast prediction and validation of part distortion in selective laser melting. Procedia Manuf 1:355–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dunbar AJ, Denlinger ER, Heigel J, Michaleris P, Guerrier P, Martukanitz R, Simpson TW (2016) Development of experimental method for in situ distortion and temperature measurements during the laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process. Addit Manuf 12:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kempen K, Vrancken B, Buls S, Thijs L, Van Humbeeck J, Kruth J-P (2014) Selective laser melting of crack-free high density M2 high speed steel parts by baseplate preheating. J Manuf Sci Eng 136(6):061026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shiomi M, Osakada K, Nakamura K, Yamashita T, Abe F (2004) Residual stress within metallic model made by selective laser melting process. CIRP Ann - Manuf Technol 53(1):195–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rafi HK, Karthik NV, Gong H, Starr TL, Stucker BE (2013) Microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V parts fabricated by selective laser melting and electron beam melting. J Mater Eng Perform 22(12):3872–3883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vrancken B, Buls S, Kruth J.-P, and Van Humbeeck J, “Influence of preheating and oxygen content on selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V,” in Proceedings of the 16th RAPDASA Conference, 20151101Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bremen S, Meiners W, Wissenbach K, Poprawe R (2017) Correlation of the high power SLM process with resulting material properties for IN718. BHM Berg- Hüttenmänn Monatshefte 162(5):179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Niendorf T, Leuders S, Riemer A, Richard HA, Tröster T, Schwarze D (2013) Highly anisotropic steel processed by selective laser melting. Metall Mater Trans B Process Metall Mater Process Sci 44(4):794–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Masoomi M, Thompson SM, Shamsaei N (2017) Quality part production via multi-laser additive manufacturing. Manuf Lett 13:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang XC, Zhang YK, Lu JZ, Xuan FZ, Wang ZD, Tu ST (2010) Improvement of fatigue life of Ti–6Al–4V alloy by laser shock peening. Mater Sci Eng A 527(15):3411–3415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dorman M, Toparli MB, Smyth N, Cini A, Fitzpatrick ME, Irving PE (2012) Effect of laser shock peening on residual stress and fatigue life of clad 2024 aluminium sheet containing scribe defects. Mater Sci Eng A 548:142–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Charles TW, Montross S (2002) Laser shock processing and its effects on microstructure and properties of metal alloys: a review. Int J Fatigue 24(10):1021–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    AlMangour B, Yang J-M (2016) Improving the surface quality and mechanical properties by shot-peening of 17-4 stainless steel fabricated by additive manufacturing. Mater Des 110:914–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    AlMangour B, Yang J-M (2017) Integration of heat treatment with shot peening of 17-4 stainless steel fabricated by direct metal laser sintering. JOM 69(11):2309–2313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kalentics N, Logé R, and Boillat E (2017) “Method and device for implementing laser shock peening or warm laser shock peening during selective laser melting,” US20170087670 A1Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Afazov S, Denmark WAD, Lazaro Toralles B, Holloway A, Yaghi A (2017) Distortion prediction and compensation in selective laser melting. Addit Manuf 17:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kalentics N, Boillat E, Peyre P, Ćirić-Kostić S, Bogojević N, Logé RE (2017) Tailoring residual stress profile of selective laser melted parts by laser shock peening. Addit Manuf 16:90–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kalentics N, Boillat E, Peyre P, Gorny C, Kenel C, Leinenbach C, Jhabvala J, Logé RE (2017) 3D laser shock peening – a new method for the 3D control of residual stresses in selective laser melting. Mater Des 130:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hackel L, Rankin JR, Rubenchik A, King WE, and Matthews M (2018) “Laser peening: a tool for additive manufacturing post-processing,” Addit ManufGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yadroitsev I, Krakhmalev P, Yadroitsava I (Jan. 2014) Selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V alloy for biomedical applications: temperature monitoring and microstructural evolution. J Alloys Compd 583:404–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. A. Antonysamy (2012) “Microstructure, texture and mechanical property evolution during additive manufacturing of Ti6Al4V alloy for aerospace applications,” [Thesis]. Manchester, UK: The University of Manchester; 2012, [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 12-Apr-2018]
  24. 24.
    Campanelli SL, Contuzzi N, Ludovico AD, Caiazzo F, Cardaropoli F, Sergi V (2014) Manufacturing and characterization of Ti6Al4V lattice components manufactured by selective laser melting. Materials 7(6):4803–4822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    (2018)“1709 CL 41TI ELI_layer.indd - Datasheet_CL_41TI_ELI.pdf.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 12-Apr-]
  26. 26.
    Kruth J-P, Badrossamay M, Yasa E, Deckers J, Thijs L, and Van Humbeeck J (2010) “Part and material properties in selective laser melting of metals,” presented at the Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on ElectromachiningGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sillars SA, Sutcliffe CJ, Philo AM, Brown SGR, Sienz J, Lavery NP (2018) The three-prong method: a novel assessment of residual stress in laser powder bed fusion. Virtual Phys Prototyp 13(1):20–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Casavola C, Campanelli SL, Pappalettere C Experimental analysis of residual stresses in the selective laser melting process. In: Proccedings of the XIth International Congress and Exposition, Orlando. Florida, USA, p 2008Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Renzi C, Panari D, and Leali F (2018) “Predicting tolerance on the welding distortion in a thin aluminum welded T-joint,” Int J Adv Manuf Technol, pp. 1–16Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mahapatra MM, Datta GL, Pradhan B, Mandal NR (2006) Three-dimensional finite element analysis to predict the effects of SAW process parameters on temperature distribution and angular distortions in single-pass butt joints with top and bottom reinforcements. Int J Press Vessel Pip 83(10):721–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Deng D, Liang W, Murakawa H (2007) Determination of welding deformation in fillet-welded joint by means of numerical simulation and comparison with experimental measurements. J Mater Process Technol 183(2):219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikola Kalentics
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andreas Burn
    • 2
  • Michael Cloots
    • 3
  • Roland E. Logé
    • 1
  1. 1.Thermomechanical Metallurgy Laboratory – PX Group ChairEcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)NeuchâtelSwitzerland
  2. 2.Swiss Advanced Manufacturing Center SAMCSwitzerland Innovation Park Biel/Bienne SIPBBBiel/BienneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Irpd AGSt. GallenSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations