Effect of in-process active cooling on forming quality and efficiency of tandem GMAW–based additive manufacturing

  • Junbiao Shi
  • Fang LiEmail author
  • Shujun Chen
  • Yun Zhao
  • Hongyu Tian


Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), utilizing welding arc to melt metal wire into shaped parts, has become a promising manufacturing technology recently. Tandem GMAW–based WAAM (TG-WAAM), in which two wires are fed into the molten pool simultaneously, has the potential to double the efficiency of traditional WAAM. However, the high wire-feed speed is accompanied with high heat input that is likely to cause molten pool overflowing, especially at upper layers because of decreased heat dissipation and increased heat accumulation. An in-process active cooling technology based on thermoelectric cooling is introduced into TG-WAAM in this research. Its effect on forming quality and efficiency of TG-WAAM is investigated experimentally. The results show that the additional cooling well compensates for the excessive heat input into the molten pool, which enables not only increased maximum wire-feed speed (9–15%) but also reduced inter-layer dwell time (42–54%), while maintaining the desired forming quality. The overall efficiency is improved by more than 0.97 times in the case study. This research provides a feasible scheme to solve the conflict between forming quality and efficiency during WAAM.


Wire arc additive manufacturing Tandem GMAW Active cooling Forming quality Efficiency 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 51805013) and Foundation Research Fund of Beijing University of Technology (no. 001000546318526).


  1. 1.
    Thompson MK, Moroni G, Vaneker T, Fadel G, Campbell RI, Gibson I, Bernard A, Schulz J, Graf P, Ahuja B, Martina F (2016) Design for additive manufacturing: trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 65(2):737–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li F, Chen S, Wu Z, Yan Z (2018) Adaptive process control of wire and arc additive manufacturing for fabricating complex-shaped components. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 96(1–4):871–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    ZhongY RLE, Wikman S, Koptyug A, Liu L, Cui D, Shen ZJ (2017) Additive manufacturing of ITER first wall panel parts by two approaches: selective laser melting and electron beam melting. Fusion Eng Des 116:24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Martina F (2014) Investigation of methods to manipulate geometry, microstructure and mechanical properties in titanium large scale wire+arc additive manufacturing. Dissertation, Cranfield UniversityGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baufeld B, Biest OVD, Gault R (2010) Additive manufacturing of Ti–6Al–4V components by shaped metal deposition: microstructure and mechanical properties. Mater Des 31(1):S106–S111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xu X, Ding J, Ganguly S, Diao C, Williams S (2017) Oxide accumulation effects on wire + arc layer-by-layer additive manufacture process. J Mater Process Technol 252:739–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ding D, Pan Z, Cuiuri D, Li H (2015) Wire-feed additive manufacturing of metal components: technologies developments and future interests. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81(1–4):465–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ding D, Pan Z, Cuiuri D, Li H (2015) A practical path planning methodology for wire and arc additive manufacturing of thin-walled structures. Robot CIM-INT Manuf 34(C):8–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhan Q, Liang Y, Ding J, Williams S (2016) A wire deflection detection method based on image processing in wire + arc additive manufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(1–4):1–9Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li F, Chen S, Shi J, Zhao Y (2018) In-process control of distortion in wire and arc additive manufacturing based on a flexible multi-point support fixture. Sci Technol Weld Joi.
  11. 11.
    Li F, Chen S, Shi J, Tian H, Zhao Y (2017) Evaluation and optimization of a hybrid manufacturing process combining wire arc additive manufacturing with milling for the fabrication of stiffened panels. Appl Sci 7(12):1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xiong J, Lei Y, Chen H, Zhang G (2017) Fabrication of inclined thin-walled parts in multi-layer single-pass GMAW-based additive manufacturing with flat position deposition. J Mater Process Technol 240:397–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xiong J, Zhang G, Zhang W (2015) Forming appearance analysis in multi-layer single-pass GMAW-based additive manufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 80(9–12):1767–1776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Geng H, Li J, Xiong J, Lin X (2016) Optimisation of interpass temperature and heat input for wire and arc additive manufacturing 5A06 aluminium alloy. Sci Technol Weld Joi 22(6):472–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Xiong J, Zhang G, Hu J, Wu L (2014) Bead geometry prediction for robotic gmaw-based rapid manufacturing through a neural network and a second-order regression analysis. J Intell Manuf 25(1):157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xiong J, Yin Z, Zhang W (2016) Closed-loop control of variable layer width for thin-walled parts in wire and arc additive manufacturing. J Mater Process Technol 233:100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ye D, Hua X, Wu Y (2013, 2013) Arc interference behavior during twin wire gas metal arc welding process. Adv Mater Sci Eng:937094Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sproesser G, Chang YJ, Pittner A, Finkbeiner M, Rethmeier M (2017) Environmental energy efficiency of single wire and tandem gas metal arc welding. Weld World 61(4):733–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li F, Chen S, Shi J, Zhao Y, Tian H (2018) Thermoelectric cooling-aided bead geometry regulation in wire and arc-based additive manufacturing of thin-walled structures. Appl Sci 8(2):207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ding J (2012) Thermo-mechanical analysis of wire and arc additive manufacturing process. Dissertation, Cranfield UniversityGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Henckell P, Günther K, Ali Y, Bergmann JP, Scholz J, Forêt P (2017) The influence of gas cooling in context of wire arc additive manufacturing—a novel strategy of affecting grain structure and size. TMS 2017 146th Annual Meeting & Exhibition Supplemental Proceedings. Springer International PublishingGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cong B, Qi Z, Qi B, Sun H, Zhao G, Ding J (2017) A comparative study of additively manufactured thin wall and block structure with al-6.3%cu alloy using cold metal transfer process. Appl Sci 7(3):275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meng JH, Wang XD, Zhang XX (2013) Transient modeling and dynamic characteristics of thermoelectric cooler. Appl Energy 108(5):340–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhao D, Tan G (2014) A review of thermoelectric cooling: materials modeling and applications. Appl Therm Eng 66(1–2):15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wu B, Ding D, Pan Z, Cuiuri D, Li H, Han J, Fei ZY (2017) Effects of heat accumulation on the arc characteristics and metal transfer behavior in wire arc additive manufacturing of Ti6Al4V. J Mater Process Technol 250:304–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics TechnologyBeijing University of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Engineering Research Center of Advanced Manufacturing Technology for Automotive Components-Ministry of EducationBeijing University of TechnologyBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations