Edge surface grinding of CFRP composites using rotary ultrasonic machining: comparison of two machining methods

  • Yuanchen Li
  • Chengzu Ren
  • Hui Wang
  • Yingbin Hu
  • Fuda Ning
  • Xinlin Wang
  • Weilong CongEmail author


Edge surface grinding has been widely applied in achieving functional surfaces and repairing the damage surfaces of carbon fiber–reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites especially with complex three-dimensional features. The conventional surface grinding (CSG) usually generates surface damages, leading to reduced service life and load-carrying capability of the parts. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop a surface grinding process of CFRP composites in a high-quality and high-efficiency way. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) surface grinding has been proven to be such a process. In addition, RUM edge surface grinding can be conducted by up surface grinding or down surface grinding. However, the difference between up surface grinding and down surface grinding with RUM has not been reported. In this paper, the comparison between up surface grinding and down surface grinding with RUM is studied for the first time. The effects of the grinding parameters on machining performance, including cutting force, surface roughness, and surface morphology characteristics, are experimentally studied. The results show that the cutting forces in up grinding are obviously larger than those in down grinding. Lower surface roughness is generated by down grinding when grinding parameters are kept unchanged. The reasons for the differences of cutting forces and surface integrity are discussed. Surface morphologies suggest clearly that brittle fracture is the predominant material removal mode in grinding of CFRP composites. The chip size of the resin, the fracture size of the carbon fiber, and the material removal scale are smaller in down grinding. Furthermore, compared with CSG, the advantages of RUM surface grinding are presented. This investigation will provide useful guidance for surface grinding of CFRP composites.


Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) Up/down surface grinding Carbon fiber–reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites Cutting force Machined surface integrity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Funding information

The work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through the award CMMI-1538381.


  1. 1.
    Che D, Saxena I, Han P, Guo P, Ehmann KF (2014) Machining of carbon fiber reinforced plastics/polymers: a literature review. J Manuf Sci Eng 136(3):034001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mallick PK (2007) Fiber-reinforced composites: materials, manufacturing, and design. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 49–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chung DD (2010) Composite materials: science and applications. Springer Science & Business Media, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hu NS, Zhang LC (2003) A study on the grindability of multidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced plastics. J Mater Process Technol 140(1–3):152–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sasahara H, Kikuma T, Koyasu R, Yao Y (2014) Surface grinding of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) with an internal coolant supplied through grinding wheel. Precis Eng 38(4):775–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mouritz AP, Gellert E, Burchill P, Challis K (2001) Review of advanced composite structures for naval ships and submarines. Compos Struct 53(1):21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liu D, Tang Y, Cong WL (2012) A review of mechanical drilling for composite laminates. Compos Struct 94(4):1265–1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tong L, Mouritz AP, Bannister MK (2002) 3D fibre reinforced polymer composites. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferreira JR, Coppini NL, Miranda GWA (1999) Machining optimisation in carbon fibre reinforced composite materials. J Mater Process Technol 92:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karpat Y, Bahtiyar O, Değer B (2012) Mechanistic force modeling for milling of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 56:79–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ning F, Cong W, Wang H, Hu Y, Hu Z, Pei Z (2017) Surface grinding of CFRP composites with rotary ultrasonic machining: a mechanistic model on cutting force in the feed direction. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92(1–4):1217–1229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang C, Zhang J, Feng P (2013) Mathematical model for cutting force in rotary ultrasonic face milling of brittle materials. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69(1–4):161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Xu WX, Zhang LC (2015) Ultrasonic vibration-assisted machining: principle, design and application. Adv Manuf 3(3):173–192MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kumar MN, Subbu SK, Krishna PV, Venugopal A (2014) Vibration assisted conventional and advanced machining: a review. Procedia Engineering 97:1577–1586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brehl DE, Dow TA (2008) Review of vibration-assisted machining. Precis Eng 32(3):153–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang H, Ning F, Hu Y, Li Y, Wang X and Cong W (2018) Edge trimming of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites using rotary ultrasonic machining: effects of tool orientations. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 1–13Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maurotto A, Muhammad R, Roy A, Babitsky VI, Silberschmidt VV (2012) Comparing machinability of Ti-15-3-3-3 and Ni-625 alloys in UAT. Procedia CIRP 1:330–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khajehzadeh M, Akhlaghi M, Razfar MR (2014) Finite element simulation and experimental investigation of tool temperature during ultrasonically assisted turning of aerospace aluminum using multicoated carbide inserts. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 75(5–8):1163–1175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sofuoğlu MA, Çakır FH, Gürgen S, Orak S, Kuşhan MC (2018) Numerical investigation of hot ultrasonic assisted turning of aviation alloys. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 40(3):122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sofuoğlu MA, Çakır FH, Gürgen S, Orak S, Kuşhan MC (2018) Experimental investigation of machining characteristics and chatter stability for Hastelloy-X with ultrasonic and hot turning. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95(1–4):83–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Muhammad R (2013) Hot ultrasonically assisted turning of Ti-15V3Al3Cr3Sn: experimental and numerical analysis (Doctoral dissertation, © Riaz Muhammad)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pujana J, Rivero A, Celaya A, De Lacalle LL (2009) Analysis of ultrasonic-assisted drilling of Ti6Al4V. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49(6):500–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sanda A, Arriola I, Navas VG, Bengoetxea I, Gonzalo O (2016) Ultrasonically assisted drilling of carbon fibre reinforced plastics and Ti6Al4V. J Manuf Process 22:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tao G, Ma C, Shen X, Zhang J (2017) Experimental and modeling study on cutting forces of feed direction ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(1–4):709–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shen XH, Zhang J, Xing DX, Zhao Y (2012) A study of surface roughness variation in ultrasonic vibration-assisted milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 58(5–8):553–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Guo B, Zhao Q (2017) Ultrasonic vibration assisted grinding of hard and brittle linear micro-structured surfaces. Precis Eng 48:98–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang H, Ning F, Hu Y, Li Y, Wang X and Cong W (2018) Edge trimming of CFRP composites using rotary ultrasonic machining: effects of ultrasonic vibration. In ASME 2018 13th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, pp V004T03A051–V004T03A051Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li ZC, Jiao Y, Deines TW, Pei ZJ, Treadwell C (2005) Rotary ultrasonic machining of ceramic matrix composites: feasibility study and designed experiments. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45(12–13):1402–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lv D, Wang H, Tang Y, Huang Y, Zhang H, Ren W (2012) Surface observations and material removal mechanisms in rotary ultrasonic machining of brittle material. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 226(9):1479–1488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bertsche E, Ehmann K, Malukhin K (2013) An analytical model of rotary ultrasonic milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 65(9–12):1705–1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang H, Ning F, Hu Y, Cong W (2018) Surface grinding of CFRP composites using rotary ultrasonic machining: a comparison of workpiece machining orientations. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95(5–8):2917–2930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hu NS, Zhang LC (2004) Some observations in grinding unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced plastics. J Mater Process Technol 152(3):333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cong WL, Pei ZJ, Sun X, Zhang CL (2014) Rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP: a mechanistic predictive model for cutting force. Ultrasonics 54(2):663–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ning F, Wang H, Hu Y, Cong W, Zhang M, Li Y (2017) Rotary ultrasonic surface machining of CFRP composites: a comparison with conventional surface grinding. Procedia Manufacturing 10:557–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hitchiner MP, Marinescu ID, Uhlmann E, Rowe WB, Inasaki I (2016) Handbook of machining with grinding wheels. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 11–28Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mechanism Theory and Equipment Design of Ministry of EducationTianjin UniversityTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Industrial, Manufacturing, and Systems EngineeringTexas Tech UniversityLubbockUSA
  3. 3.Department of Systems Science and Industrial EngineeringState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamtonUSA

Personalised recommendations