Skip to main content

Metallurgical aspects of joining commercially pure titanium to Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a T-joint configuration by laser beam welding

A Correction to this article was published on 13 August 2018

This article has been updated


The present paper focuses on the metallurgical and microstructural characterization of the laser beam-welded T-joints between commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The weld regions were comprehensively studied and the mechanisms leading to the final morphology within each weld region were described. The link between microstructural features and local mechanical properties was demonstrated. Owing to different constitution, the responses of the two titanium alloys to thermal cycles imposed by laser welding are completely different. A strong interface with no dilution zone between the two alloys was observed. The cooling rate during the welding process is high enough for diffusionless martensitic transformation in the Ti-6Al-4V part of the fusion zone. In contrast, no evidence of martensite was found in the CP-Ti because of low solute content and, consequently, much higher critical cooling rate. Plausible reason for some controversy found in the literature on the resulting transformation products after laser processing of CP-Ti was given. The present findings might have important industrial implications because careful microstructural characterization revealed the real position of the skin fusion line, which is of great importance for fulfillment of the weld quality criteria.

Change history

  • 13 August 2018

    The article Metallurgical aspects of joining commercially pure titanium to Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a T-joint configuration by laser beam welding by Fedor Fomin, Martin Froend, Volker Ventzke, Pedro Alvarez, Stefan Bauer and Nikolai Kashaev, was originally published electronically.


  1. 1.

    Dawes C (1992) Laser welding, a practical guide, 1st ed. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Froend M, Fomin F, Riekehr S, Alvarez P, Zubiri F, Bauer S, Klusemann B, Kashaev N (2017) Fiber laser welding of dissimilar titanium (Ti-6Al-4V/cp-Ti) T-joints and their laser forming process for aircraft application. Opt Laser Technol 96:123–131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Boyer R, Welsch G, Collings EW, (ed) (1994) Materials properties handbook: titanium alloys, 1st ed. ASM International, Materials Park

  4. 4.

    Lathabai S, Jarvis BL, Barton KJ (2001) Comparison of keyhole and conventional gas tungsten arc welds in commercially pure titanium. Mater Sci Eng A 299:81–93

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Chen J, Pan C (2011) Welding of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using dynamically controlled plasma arc welding process. T Nonferr Metal Soc 21(7):1506–1512

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Wu M, Xin R, Wang Y, Zhou Y, Wang K, Liu Q (2016) Microstructure, texture and mechanical properties of commercial high-purity thick titanium plates jointed by electron beam welding. Mater Sci Eng A 677:50–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Squillace A, Prisco U, Ciliberto S, Astarita A (2012) Effect of welding parameters on morphology and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V laser beam welded butt joints. J Mater Process Tech 212:427–436

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Kashaev N, Ventzke V, Fomichev V, Fomin F, Riekehr S (2016) Effect of Nd:YAG laser beam welding on weld morphology and mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V butt joints and T-joints. Opt Laser Eng 86:172–180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Li X, Xie J, Zhou Y (2005) Effect of oxygen contamination in the argon shielding gas in laser welding of commercially pure titanium thin sheet. J Mater Sci 40:3437–3443

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Maawad E, Gan W, Hofmann M, Ventzke V, Riekehr S, Brokmeier HG, Kashaev N, Mueller M (2016) Influence of crystallographic texture on the microstructure, tensile properties and residual stress state of laser-welded titanium joints. Mater Des 101:137–145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Liu H, Nakata K, Yamamoto N, Liao J (2011) Mechanical properties and strengthening mechanisms in laser beam welds of pure titanium. Sci Technol Weld Joi 16(7):581–585

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Elmer JW, Wong J, Ressler T (1998) Spatially resolved X-ray diffraction phase mapping and α→β→α transformation kinetics in the heat-affected zone of commercially pure titanium arc welds. Metall Mater Trans A 29:2761–2773

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    AMS 4902E (1986) Titanium sheet, strip, and plate, commercially-pure, annealed 40.0 ksi (276 MPa) yield strength. SAE International. doi:

  14. 14.

    AMS 4911F (1988) Titanium alloy, sheet, strip, and plate, 6Al - 4V, annealed. SAE International.

  15. 15.

    Petzow G (1994) Metallographisches, keramographisches, plastographiches Ätzen. Gebrüder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Duley WW (1998) Laser welding. John Wiley & Sons, INC., New York

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Lütjering G, Williams JC (2003) Titanium, 1st ed. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg

    Book  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Salem AA (2009) Texture separation for α/β titanium alloys. In: Schwartz AJ, Kumar M, Adams BL, Field DP (eds) Electron backscatter diffraction in materials science, 2nd ed. Springer Publishers, New York

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Banerjee S, Mukhopadhyay P (2007) Phase transformations, examples from titanium and zirconium alloys. Elsevier, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Kim SK, Park JK (2011) In-situ measurement of continuous cooling β→α transformation behavior of CP-Ti. Metall Mater Trans A 33:1051–1056

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Pilchak AL, Broderick TF (2013) Evidence of a massive transformation in a Ti-6Al-4V solid-state weld. J Met 65:636–642

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Cromier M, Claisse F (1974) Beta-alpha phase transformation in Ti and Ti-O alloys. J Less-Common Met 34:181–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Amaya-Vazquez MR, Sanchez-Amaya JM, Boukha Z, Botana FJ (2012) Microstructure, microhardness and corrosion resistance of remelted TiG2 and Ti6Al4V by a high-power diode laser. Corros Sci 56:36–48

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Sun Z, Annergren I, Pan D, Mai TA (2003) Effect of laser surface remelting on the corrosion behavior of commercially pure titanium sheet. Mater Sci Eng A 345:293–300

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Zhang J, Fan D, Sun Y, Zheng Y (2007) Microstructure and hardness of the laser surface treated titanium. Key Eng Mater 353-358:1745–1748

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Aaronson HI, Enomoto M, Lee JK (2010) Mechanisms of diffusional phase transformations in metals and alloys. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Book  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Massalski TB (2002) Massive transformations revisited. Metall Mater Trans A 33:2277–2283

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Ahmed T, Rack HJ (1998) Phase transformations during cooling in α+β titanium alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 243:206–211

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Fomin F, Ventzke V, Dorn F, Levichev N, Kashaev N (2017) Effect of microstructure transformations on fatigue properties of laser beam welded Ti-6Al-4V butt joints subjected to postweld heat treatment. In: Tanski T, Borek W (eds) Study of grain boundary character. InTech, Rijeka

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Paton NE, Mahoney MW (1976) Creep of titanium-silicon alloys. Metall Trans A 7:1685–1694

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Murakami Y (2002) Metal fatigue: effects of small defects and nonmetallic inclusions, 1st edn. Elsevier, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like to thank Mr. R. Dinse, Mr. F. Dorn, and Mr. S. Riekehr from the Department of “Joining and Assessment” of Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht for their valuable technical support.


This work was carried out within the framework of an EU Project and was funded by the European Union (Clean Sky 2 EU-JTI Platform) under the thematic call JTI-CS2-2014-CFP01-LPA-01-03 “Development of advanced laser based technologies for the manufacturing of titanium HLFC structures/DELASTI” (grant agreement no: 687088).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fedor Fomin.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fomin, F., Froend, M., Ventzke, V. et al. Metallurgical aspects of joining commercially pure titanium to Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a T-joint configuration by laser beam welding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 97, 2019–2031 (2018).

Download citation


  • Laser beam welding
  • Titanium alloys
  • T-joint
  • Microstructure
  • EBSD