Review of current waveform control effects on weld geometry in gas metal arc welding process

  • Belinga Mvola
  • Paul Kah
  • Pavel Layus


Control of welding parameters is an important factor in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) because these parameters determine the heat input, cooling conditions, and time during which the microstructure and the geometry of the weld are formed. It is therefore essential that sufficient heat is transferred to highly conductive metals like aluminum and appropriate heat input used with very sensitive metals such as stainless steel and high-strength steels or when welding dissimilar metals. The objective of this study is to identify parameters of current, voltage waveforms, and electrode feeding motion that directly contribute to improvement in metal and heat transfer conditions from the electrode to the base metals. The effects of these parameters on welded joint geometry are determined. The work critically reviews research on the effect on welded joints of control of current waveform, voltage, and the alternating electrode and analyzes the different parameters that promote forces acting during metal transfer. Experiments and case studies based on controlled waveforms are discussed. The analysis shows that in controlled short-circuit gas metal arc welding (CS-GMAW), all identified parameters contribute to control of heat input and reduction in the amount of spatter and fumes generated. Variable polarity gas metal arc welding (VP-GMAW) is found to be particularly effective for aluminum welding because of its good control of mass metal transfer and weld penetration. Mixed waveform approaches (i.e., 20 pulses/controlled short circuit) improve weldability in difficult welding positions.


Adaptive control GMAW Current waveform Voltage waveform Heat input Weld properties 


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This research was carried out in the Welding Technology Laboratory of LUT and funded by the Academy of Finland, Monitoring and Modeling of Advanced Adaptive Welding Process Systems for Ultra-High Strength Steel (UHSS) project under the project number SA 23B25105Y.


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© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Welding LaboratoryLappeenranta University of TechnologyLappeenrantaFinland

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