The present work evaluates and quantifies the effect of superhard nano-composite ceramic coatings (nc-AlTiN/a-Si3N4) for high-speed drilling of AISI 316L steel. Different thicknesses (2.5, 3, 3.5, and 4 μm) of this novel coating are deposited on commercially available TiN-coated HSS drills via PVD (physical vapor deposition). Performances are evaluated in terms of tool wear aspects, workpiece temperature rise, surface roughness, and hole dimensional accuracy in high-speed regime using constant machining parameters (cutting speed of 150 m/min and feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev at 4000 rpm). It is found that coating thickness has positive effect on performance measures considered; however, dimensional accuracies improve logarithmically suggesting diminishing returns beyond a particular value. For surface roughness, maximum improvement was seen for 4-μm coating thickness wherein mean improvement was ~ 34% w.r.t. baseline (TiN). Also, 4-μm-thick nc-AlTiN/a-Si3N4-coated tool outperformed the baseline tool by orders of magnitude in terms of flank wear. Flank wear and deformation of the chisel edge are the primary wear modes for TiN-coated tool; however, for all ceramic-coated tools, chipping is dominant failure type.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Klocke F, Keieg T (1999) Coated tools for metal cutting-features and applications. CIRP Ann 48(2):515–525
Bienk EJ, Mikkelsen NJ (1995) Wear and friction properties of hard PVD coatings. Surf Coat Technol, Vol 76–77, part 2, pp 475–480
Prengel HG, Santhanam AT, Penich RM, Jindal PC, Wendt KH (1997) Advanced PVD-TiAlN coatings on carbide and cermet cutting tools. Surf Coat Technol 94-95:597–602
Yoon SY, Kim JK, Kim KH (2002) Comparative study on tribological behavior of TiN and TiAlN coatings prepared by arc ion plating technique. Surf Coat Technol 161(2–3):237–242
Kalss W, Reiter A, Derflinger V, Gey C, Endrino JL (2005) Modern coatings in high performance cutting applications. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 24:399–404
Carlsson P, Olsson M (2006) PVD coatings for sheet metal forming processes a tribological evolution. Surf Coat Technol 200(14–15):4654–4663
Santos SC, Sales WF, Silva FJ, Franco SD, Silva MB (2004) Tribological characterization of PVD coatings for cutting tools. Surf Coat Technol 184:141–148
Okada M, Hosokawa A, Tanaka R, Ueda T (2011) Cutting performance of PVD-coated carbide and CBN tools in hard milling. Int J Mach Tool Manu 51:127–132
Kathrein M, Michotte C, Penoy M, Polcik P, Mitterer C (2005) Multifunctional multi-component PVD coatings for cutting tools. Surf Coat Technol 200:1867–1871
Park KH, Kwon PY (2011) Flank wear of multi-layer coated tool. Wear 270(11–12):771–780
Lukaszkowicz K (2011) Review of nanocomposite thin films and coatings deposited by PVD and CVD technology, nanomaterials. Mohammed Rahman (Ed). https://doi.org/10.5772/25799
Moore JJ, Park IW, Lin J, Mishra B, Kim KH (2007) In: Zhang S, Ali N (eds) Nanostructured multifunctional tribological coatings, nanocomposites, thin films and coatings (processing properties and performance). Imperial College Press, London, pp 329–379
Pande CS, Cooper KP (2009) Nanomechanics of Hall-Petch relationship in nanocrystalline materials. Prog Mater Sci 54(6):689–706
Masumura RA, Hazzledine PM, Pande CS (1998) Yield stress of fine grained materials. Act Materialia 46(13):4527–4534
Faga MG, Gautier G, Calzavarini R, Perucca M, Boot EA, Cartasegna F, Settineri L (2007) AlSiTiN nanocomposite coatings developed via arc cathodic PVD: evaluation of wear resistance via tribological analysis and high speed machining operations. Wear 263(7–12):1306–1314
Veprek S, Maritza JG, Veprek-Heijman (2008) Industrial applications of superhard nanocomposite coatings. Surf Coat Technol 202(21):5063–5073
Settineri L, Faga MG, Gautier G, Perucca M (2008) Evaluation of wear resistance of AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN nanocomposite coatings for cutting tools. CIRP Ann-Manuf Technol 57:575–578
Jakubeczyova D, Hagarova M (2012) The study of two types of PVD coatings on the substrate made by powder metallurgy. Acta Metall Slovaca 18(4):191–199
Endrino JL, Fox-Rabinovich GL, Gey C (2006) Hard AlTiN, AlCrN PVD coatings for machining of austenitic stainless steel. Surf Coat Technol 200:597–602
Bouzakis KD, Hadjiyiannis S, Skordaris G, Anastopoulos J, Mirisidisa I, Michailidis N, Efstathiou K, Knotek O, Erkens G, Cremer R, Rambadt S, Wirth I (2003) The influence of the coating thickness on its strength properties and on the milling performance of PVD coated inserts. Surf Coat Technol 174-175:393–401
Skordaris G, Bouzakis KD, Kotsanis T, Charalampous P, Bouzakis E, Lemmer O, Bolz S (2016) Film thickness effect on mechanical properties and milling performance of nano-structured multilayer PVD coated tools. Surf Coat Technol 307:452–460
Sargade VG, Gangopadhyay S, Paul S, Chattopadhyay AK (2011) Effect of coating thickness on the characteristics and dry machining performance of TiN film deposited on cemented carbide inserts using CFUBMS. Mater Manuf Process 26(8):1028–1033
Mughal K (2014) Nano composite ceramic thickness investigation on the performance of coated HSS drills for high speed machining. MS Thesis, University of Engineering & Technology Lahore Pakistan
Bar-Hen M, Etsion I (2017) Experimental study of the effect of coating thickness and substrate roughness on tool wear during turning. Tribol Int 110:341–347
Tuffy K, Byrne G, Dowling D (2004) Determination of the optimum TiN coating thickness on WC inserts for machining carbon steels. J Mater Process Technol 155-156:1861–1866
Liu Z, An Q, Xu J, Chen M, Han S (2013) Wear performance of (nc-AlTiN) / (a-Si3N4) coating and (nc-AlCrN)/(a-Si3N4) coating in high speed machining of titanium alloys under dry and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) conditions. Wear 305(1–2):249–259
Veprek S, Veprek-Heijman MGJ, Karvankova P, Prochazka J (2005) Different approaches to superhard coatings and nanocomposites. Thin Solid Films 476(1):1–29
Vidakis N, Antoniadis A, Bilalis N (2003) The VDI 3198 indentation test evaluation of a reliable qualitative control for layered compounds. J Mater Process Technol 143-144:481–485
Ramamoorthy B, Yeldose BC (2009) An investigation into the adhesion strength of diamond like carbon multilayer coating (DLC/TiN/Ti/Cu/Ni). Intell Inf Manag 1:179–194
Chen KW, Lin JF (2009) The study of adhesion and nanomechanical properties of DLC films deposited on tool steels. Thin Solid Films 517(17):4916–4920
Kalidas S, Richard E, Vor D, Kapoor SG (2001) Experimental investigation of the effect of drill coatings on hole quality under dry and wet drilling conditions. Surf Coat Technol 148:117–128
Ema S (2012) Effects of twist drill point geometry on torque and thrust. Sci Rep Fac Educ Gifu University Japan (Nat Sci) 36:165–174
About this article
Cite this article
Mughal, K., Saleem, M.Q. & Mughal, M.P. Performance evaluation of nano-composite ceramic-coated high-speed steel (HSS) drills in high-speed machining. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 96, 4195–4203 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-1829-9
- Nc-AlTiN/a-Si3N4 coating
- Tool wear
- High-speed machining