Research on forming process and forming accuracy using low-melting alloys for sheet metal forming based on FEA

  • Liyan Wang
  • Mingzhe LiEmail author
  • Liang Zhao
  • Zhuo Yi


In this paper, an effective forming method suppressing the wrinkling occurrence for sheet metal was investigated with a low-melting alloy (LMA). The LMA is under the action of forming force; the forming pressure medium transfers a uniform forming pressure on the surface of the forming plate to suppress plastic instability and wrinkling occurrence during the forming process. At the same time, the proposed method could reduce the process allowance of the sheet, which eliminates the trimming process and improves the material utilization for the formed parts. The mechanical properties of LMA were obtained by high-temperature tensile tests. The experiments show that the LMA under the heating state has lower rheological strength and the deformation resistance of the LMA decreases. The finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS was employed to establish the FEA model for the proposed forming method. The coupled fluid-solid method was applied for the simulation of sheet forming process in ABAQUS/Explicit. The effects of various forming processes on the forming force, forming accuracy, and shape error of the plate were analyzed as well as the distribution of strain in the thickness direction. The effects of LMA on sheet forming under different temperature conditions were experimentally studied. The experimental results are consistent with the numerical simulation ones.


Low-melting alloy Sheet metal forming Numerical simulation Wrinkling prevention 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Liu ZW, Li MZ, Han QG (2012) Numerical simulation on multi-point sheet metal forming with wrinkle resistance function. J Jilin Univ Technol 42:1208–1213 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gunnarsson L, Schedin E (2001) Improving the properties of exterior body panels in automobiles using variable blank holder force. J Mater Process Technol 114:168–173. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang WR, Chen GL, Lin ZQ (2007) Determination of optimal blank holder force trajectories for segmented binders of step rectangle box using PID closed-loop FEM simulation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 32:1074–1082. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Morovvati MR, Fatemi A, Sadighi M (2011) Experimental and finite element investigation on wrinkling of circular single layer and two-layer sheet metals in deep drawing process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 54:113–121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Modi B, Kumar DR (2013) Development of a hydroforming setup for deep drawing of square cups with variable blank holding force technique. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 66:1159–1169. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kitayama S, Koyama H, Kawamoto K (2017) Optimization of blank shape and segmented variable blank holder force trajectories in deep drawing using sequential approximate optimization. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91:1809–1821. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fu WZ, Li MZ (2006) A research on the flexible blank-holder in multi-point forming press. J Plasticity Eng 32-35(In Chinese):2Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sun G, Li MZ, Yan XP, Zhong PP (2007) Study of blank-holder technology on multi-point forming of thin sheet metal. J Mater Process Technol 187-188:517–520. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu Y, Li M, Ju F (2017) Research on the process of flexible blank holder in multi-point forming for spherical surface parts. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89:2315–2322. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu W, An L, Yuan SJ (2017) Enhancement on deformation uniformity of double curvature shell by hydroforming process and curved blank-holder surface. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92:1913–1922. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhao, C.C., Li, X.D., Dong, G.J., Wang, Y.S (2009) Solid granules medium forming technology and its numerical simulation. Chin J Mech Eng-en 45:211–215Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li PL, Zhang Z, Zeng YS (2012) Study on titanium alloy spinner based on solid granules medium forming. Chin Forging and stamping Technol 37:60–63Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dong GJ, Yang ZY, Zhao JP, Zhao CC, Cao MY (2016) Stress and strain analysis onAA7075 cylindrical parts during hot granule medium pressure forming. J Cent South Univ 23:2845–2857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Klemach Fred A (1952) A method of forming sheet metal with low-melting dies. Patent, US 2593571Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Durgun I, Kus A, Sakin A, Unver E, Jagger B (2016) Experimental investigation of sheet metal forming using a recyclable low melting point alloy tool. Mater Test 58(5):475–480. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li Y, Li H, Gao YJ (2014) Application of low melting point alloy in C919 aircraft part forming. Aeronautical ManufacturingTechnology (S1):53-55+58 (In Chinese) Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    . Wang, J.H., Yang, Y.Q., Li, Q.Y. (2005) Design and properties of bi-cd-Sn-Pb fusible alloys. Development and Application of Materials, 20(1): 1–3. (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    DS Simulia. Abaqus6.13 Help Documentation (2013). USA:Dassault Systems Simulia Corp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liyan Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mingzhe Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Liang Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhuo Yi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Dieless Forming Technology Center, Roll Forging InstituteJilin UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.College of Materials Science and EngineeringJilin UniversityChangchunChina

Personalised recommendations