Friction welding of AA6061 to AISI 316L steel: characteristic analysis and novel design equipment

  • Long Wan
  • Yongxian Huang


AA6061 aluminum alloy and AISI 316L steel were joined by friction welding with a specific steel collar fixed on aluminum side to control its expelling, flash morphology, and the formation of intermetallic compound (IMC) layer. The effects of friction time and welding groove were investigated by analyzing microstructure characteristics and mechanical properties. Eight typical zones could be found, and the existence of some certain zones depended on friction time. The thickness of IMC layers declined from 4 to 0.2 μm with friction time decreasing from 40 to 10 s, while a 15° welding groove machined on the end of steel helped realize thinning of IMC layer to a thickness of 0.3 μm. The conditions of 25-s friction time and processing of the 15° welding groove got best mechanical properties with average tensile strength of 166.32 MPa and average elongation rate of 9.47%. Tensile strength and elongation rate can improve 16.15 and 745.5%.


Friction welding Aluminum alloy Steel Mechanical property Interfacial microstructure Novel design equipment 


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Funding information

The work was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51575132).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and JoiningHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinPeople’s Republic of China

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