Instant detection of porosity in gas metal arc welding by using probability density distribution and control chart

  • Dinu Thomas Thekkuden
  • A. Santhakumari
  • A. Sumesh
  • Abdel-Hamid I. Mourad
  • K. Rameshkumar


A novel porosity detection technique from the voltage and current transients is introduced in this paper. An online weld monitoring that detects the porosity at an earlier stage is much demanding in the industry due to their adverse effects on structural integrity. In this research work, control chart and probability density distribution have been employed as tools to detect arc instability and weld porosity. The results showed that the pattern of probability density distribution changes for the defect and defect-free welds significantly. The mean and standard deviation control charts plotted with voltage clearly distinguished the quality of the weld based on sample points spread within or outside the control limits. For minute internal porosities, the sample points at the corresponding region in the standard deviation control chart were outside the limits whereas it is well within the control limits in the mean control chart. Inspector can predict the presence and near location of porosity using these tools by simple mathematical calculations easily and instantly. The results proved that the developed approach is successful and promising for the weld inspection.

Graphical abstract


Gas metal arc welding Structural integrity Probability density distribution Control chart Porosity Online monitoring 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dinu Thomas Thekkuden
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Santhakumari
    • 3
  • A. Sumesh
    • 1
  • Abdel-Hamid I. Mourad
    • 2
    • 4
  • K. Rameshkumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amrita School of EngineeringAmrita UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of EngineeringUnited Arab Emirates UniversityAl AinUnited Arab Emirates
  3. 3.Welding Research InstituteBharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.TiruchirappalliIndia
  4. 4.Faculty of Engineering, El MatariaHelwan UniversityCairoEgypt

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