Study on minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) in grinding of carbon fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composites (CMCs)

  • H. Adibi
  • H. Esmaeili
  • S. M. Rezaei


Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a new class of high-technology materials that can be utilized in hot-zone structures and as a lightweight replacement for metallic superalloys. CMCs offer low density, high hardness, and superior thermal and chemical resistance which make them highly attractive in a vast array of applications. Nevertheless, the high hardness, as well as the inhomogeneous structure of the CMCs, causes unstable processes and high tool wear when machining. In this research, MQL grinding, known as an economical and environmentally friendly grinding process, was accomplished and its efficiency was compared with conventional fluid and dry grinding. Along with obtaining of comprehensive results, the effects of main grinding parameters, such as cutting speed, feed speed, and depth of cut, on the grinding forces, specific grinding energy, wheel wear, surface roughness, and integrity were analyzed. The results showed that MQL grinding reduced the grinding forces and specific grinding energy. As a result, wheel wear was lowered and G-ratio was increased. In addition, the surface generated by MQL grinding was smoother than fluid grinding and significantly better than dry grinding.


C/SiC composite MQL ANOVA Grinding forces Wheel wear Surface roughness 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bansal NP, Lamon J (2015) “Ceramic matrix composites: materials, modeling and technology”, 1st edition. Wiley-VCHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yuan S, Fan H, Amin M, Zhang C, Guo M (2016) A cutting force prediction dynamic model for side milling of ceramic matrix composites C/SiC based on rotary ultrasonic machining. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86(1-4):37–48.  10.1007/s00170-015-8099-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang Y, Sarin VK, Lin B, Li H, Gillard S (2016) Feasibility study of the ultrasonic vibration filing of carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites. Int J Mach Tool Manu 101:10–17.  10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2015.11.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Krenkel W, Langhof N (2017) Ceramic matrix composites for high performance friction applications. Proceedings of the IV Advanced Ceramics and Applications Conference, Paris, pp 13–28Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nestler D.J., Roder, N. N., Todt, A., Wielage, B., Wagner, G., Kroll. L.; “An innovative production method for a C/C-SiC brake disc, suitable for a large-scale production”, 6th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2015, p.p. 605–627, 2015Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oliveira JFG, Silva EJ, Gua C, Hashimoto F (2009) Industrial challenges in grinding. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 58(2):663–680.  10.1016/j.cirp.2009.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Azarhoushang B, Tawakoli T (2011) Development of a novel ultrasonic unit for grinding of ceramic matrix composites. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 57(9-12):945–955.  10.1007/s00170-011-3347-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang C, Yuan S, Amin M, Fan H, Liu Q (2016) Development of a cutting force prediction model based on brittle fracture for C/SiC in rotary ultrasonic facing milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 85(1-4):573–583.  10.1007/s00170-015-7894-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tawakoli T, Hadad MJ, Sadeghi MH (2010) Influence of oil mist parameters on minimum quantity lubrication—MQL grinding process. Int J Mach Tool Manu 50(6):521–531.  10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2010.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Boswell, B., Islam, M. N.; “A review identifying the effectiveness of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) during conventional machining”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, p.p. 1–20, 2017Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sadeghi MH, Haddad MJ, Tawakoli T, Emami M (2009) Minimal quantity lubrication-MQL in grinding of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 44(5-6):487–500.  10.1007/s00170-008-1857-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boubekri N, Shaikh V (2015) Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) in machining: benefits and drawbacks. Journal of Industrial and Intelligent Information 3:205–209Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kouam J, Songmene V, Balazinski M et al (2016) Effects of minimum quantity lubricating (MQL) conditions on machining of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 79:1325–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pervaiz S, Rashid A, Deiab I et al (2017) An experimental investigation on effect of minimum quantity cooling lubrication (MQCL) in machining titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87:1371–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nouioua M, Yallese MA, Khettabi R et al (2017) Comparative assessment of cooling conditions, including MQL technology on machining factors in an environmentally friendly approach. Int J Adv Manuf Technol:1–16Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu, Q., Huang, G., Xu, X., Fang, C., Cui, C.; “A study on the surface grinding of 2D C/SiC composites”, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, p.p. 1–9, 2017Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Damasceno RF, Ruzzi R, França TV et al (2017) Performance evaluation of various cooling-lubrication techniques in grinding of hardened AISI 4340 steel with vitrified bonded CBN wheel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol:1–12Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li B, Li C, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Jia D, Yang M (2016) Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil. Chin J Aeronaut 29(4):1084–1095.  10.1016/j.cja.2015.10.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ding W, Zhang L, Li Z (2017) Review on grinding-induced residual stresses in metallic materials. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(9-12):2939–2968.  10.1007/s00170-016-8998-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. Weinert, T. Jansen, “Machining aspects for the drilling of C/C–SiC materials”, in: W. Krenkel (Ed.), Ceramic matrix composites, Wiley-VCH Verlag, pp. 287–301, 2008, DOI:  10.1002/9783527622412.ch12
  21. 21.
    Ding WF, Xu JH, Chen ZZ (2013) Fabrication and performance of porous metal-bonded CBN grinding wheels using alumina bubble particles as pore-forming agents. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67(5-8):1309–1315.  10.1007/s00170-012-4567-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xi X, Ding W, Li Z, Xu J (2017) High speed grinding of particulate reinforced titanium matrix composites using a monolayer brazed cubic boron nitride wheel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(5-8):1529–1538.  10.1007/s00170-016-9493-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tawakoli T, Azarhoushang B (2011) Intermittent grinding of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) utilizing a developed segmented wheel. Int J Mach Tool Manu 51(2):112–119.  10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2010.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang L, Ren C, Ji C, Wang Z, Chen G (2016) Effect of fiber orientation on surface grinding process of unidirectional C/SiC composites. Appl Surf Sci 366:424–431.  10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.01.142 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hadad M, Hadi M (2013) An investigation on surface grinding of hardened stainless steel S34700 and aluminum alloy AA6061 using minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL) technique. Int J Mach Tool Manu 68:2145–2158Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Emami M (2013) Theoretical and experimental investigation of the effects of ultrasonic vibrations and minimum quantity lubrication on grinding process of engineering ceramics. Doctoral thesisGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Help of “Design expert 7.0.0” softwareGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Malkin S, Guo C (2008) “Grinding technology: theory and application of machining with abrasives”, Industrial Press, 2nd ednGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tawakoli T, Hadad MJ, Sadeghi MH (2010) Investigation on minimum quantity lubricant-MQL grinding of 100Cr6 hardened steel using different abrasive and coolant–lubricant types. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 50(8):698–708.  10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2010.04.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Marinescu ID, Hitchinger M, Uhlmann E, Rowe WB, Inasak I (2007) Handbook of machining with grinding wheels. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dai C, Ding W, Xu J, Ding C, Huang G (2017) Investigation on size effect of grain wear behavior during grinding nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(5-8):2907–2917.  10.1007/s00170-016-9907-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li W, Wang Y, Fan S, Xu J (2007) Wear of diamond grinding wheels and material removal rate of silicon nitrides under different machining conditions. Mater Lett 61(1):54–58.  10.1016/j.matlet.2006.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Adibi H, Rezaei SM, Sarhan A (2013) Analytical modeling of grinding wheel loading phenomena. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68(1-4):473–485.  10.1007/s00170-013-4745-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Diaz OG, Axinte DA (2017) Towards understanding the cutting and fracture mechanism in ceramic matrix composites. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 118-119:12–25.  10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2017.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ding, K., Fu, Y., Su, H., Cui, F., Li, Q., Lei, W.; “Study on surface/subsurface breakage in ultrasonic assisted grinding of C/SiC composites”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, p.p. 1–11, 2017Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringAmirkabir University of TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations