Numerical and experimental study on the layer arrangement in the incremental forming process of explosive-welded low-carbon steel/CP-titanium bimetal sheet

Abstract

In this paper, the effect of layers’ arrangement of explosively welded low-carbon steel/commercially pure titanium (St/CP-Ti) bimetal sheet has been investigated in the single point incremental forming process (SPIF) experimentally and numerically. The main reason to carry out such a process is taking the advantages of materials with different properties, such as high strength, low density, low price, and corrosion resistibility, at the same time and in a single component. The composite sheet behavior in a forming process differs from single-layer sheets and depends on the layers’ arrangement and thicknesses. In this regard, the effect of layers’ arrangement on the forming behavior of (St/CP-Ti) bimetal sheet is of particular interest in the present study. Therefore, several tests were conducted to investigate the influences of some variables, such as layers’ arrangement and different vertical steps down on the variations of force versus time diagram. Based on the obtained results, the arrangement of Ti–St showed a higher forming force than St–Ti, and the force difference between two arrangements increased with an increase in vertical steps down; as for vertical steps down of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3, the force difference for the two arrangements was about 8, 15, and 25%, respectively, which showed good agreement with the FEM results. Also, microstructural studies showed that the twin density in the structure would differ, such that the twinning density of titanium layer in Ti–St mode was increased more than twice as much as the St–Ti mode and therefore would show more work hardening during the deformation, which was considered as a factor for the force difference in both types of arrangements. Also, the scanning electron microscope studies of the formed specimen’s surfaces showed a better surface quality in the samples with the St–Ti arrangement, which is due to the titanium sticking friction with the forming tool that causes in the samples with the Ti–St arrangement.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Gatea S, Hengan O, McCartney G (2016) Review on the influence of process parameters in incremental sheet forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87(1-4):479–499. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8426-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Li Y, Liu Z, Lu H, Daniel WJT(B), Liu S, Meehan PA (2014) Efficient force prediction for incremental sheet forming and experimental validation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 73:571–587

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Bahloul R, Arfa H, BelHadjSalah H (2014) A study on optimal design of process parameters in single point incremental forming of sheet metal by combining Box–Behnken design of experiments, response surface methods and genetic algorithms. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 74(1-4):163–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-014-5975-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Li J, Li S, Xie Z, Wang W (2015) Numerical simulation of incremental sheet forming based on GTN damage model. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81(9-12):2053–2065. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7333-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Silva MB, Skjødt M, Martins PA, Bay N (2008) Revisiting the fundamentals of single point incremental forming by means of membrane analysis. Int J Mach Tool Manu 48(1): 73-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2007.07.004

  6. 6.

    Smith J, Rajiv M, Liu WK, Cao J (2013) Deformation mechanics in single-point and accumulative double-sided incremental forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69:1185–1201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Liu Z, Li Y, Meehan PA (2014) Tool path strategies and deformation analysis in multi-pass incremental sheet forming process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 75(1-4):395–409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-014-6143-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Liu Z, Li Y, Meehan PA (2013) Experimental investigation of mechanical properties, formability and force measurement for AA7075-O aluminum alloy sheets formed by incremental forming. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 14:1891–1899

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ben Hmida R, Thibaud S, Gilbin A, Richard F (2013) Influence of the initial grain size in single point incremental forming process for thin sheets metal and microparts: experimental investigations. Mater Des 45:155–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2012.08.077

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Zhen C, Cedric Xia Z, Ren F, VijithaKiridena LG (2013) Modeling and validation of deformation process for incremental sheet forming. J Manuf Process 15:236–241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ambrogio G, Gagliardi F, Bruschi S, Filice L (2013) On the high-speed single point incremental forming of titanium alloys. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 62(1):243–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2013.03.053

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Fanga Y, Lua B, Chena J, Xua DK, Oub H (2014) Analytical and experimental investigations on deformation mechanism and fracture behavior in single point incremental forming. J Mater Process Technol 214(8):1503–1515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.02.019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Li Y, Daniel WJT, Liu Z, Lu H, Meehan PA (2015) Deformation mechanics and efficient force prediction in single point incremental forming. J Mater Process Technol 221:100–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Honarpisheh M, Abdolhoseini MJ, Amini S (2016) Experimental and numerical investigation of the hot incremental forming of Ti-6Al-4V sheet using electrical current. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83:2027–2037

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Findik F (2011) Recent developments in explosive welding. Mater Des 32(3):1081–1093. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2010.10.017

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kapinski S (1996) Analytical and experimental analysis of deep drawing process for bimetal elements. J Mater Process Technol 60(1-4):197–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/0924-0136(96)02328-X

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Chen C-Y, Kuo J-C, Chen H-L, Hwang W-S (2006) Experimental investigation on earing behavior of aluminum/copper bimetal sheet. Mater Trans 47(9):2434–2443. https://doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.47.2434

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Atrian A, Fereshteh-Saniee F (2013) Deep drawing process of steel/brass laminated sheets. Compos Part B 47:75–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.10.023

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Tao S, Shengdun Z, Guanhai Y, Hongbao L (2013) Plastic forming behavior of axisymmetric bimetal products with rotary swaging. Eng Sci 11:44–47

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Essa K, Kacmarcik I, Hartley P, Plancak M, Vilotic D (2012) Upsetting of bi-metallic ring billets. J Mater Process Technol 212(4):817–824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2011.11.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Haghighat H, Mahdavi MM (2013) Upper bound analysis of bimetallic rod extrusion process through rotating conical dies. J Theor Appl Mech 51:627–637

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Asemabadi M, Sedighi M, Honarpisheh M (2012) Investigation of cold rolling influence on the mechanical properties of explosive-welded Al/Cu bimetal. Mater Sci Eng A 558:144–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2012.07.102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Honarpisheh M, Niksokhan J, Nazari F (2016) Investigation of the effects of cold rolling on the mechanical properties of explosively-welded Al/St/Al multilayer sheet. Metallur Res Technol 113(1):105. https://doi.org/10.1051/metal/2015049

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Sedighi M, Honarpisheh M (2012) Investigation of cold rolling influence on near surface residual stress distribution in explosive welded multilayer. Strength Mater 44(6):693–698. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11223-012-9424-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Durante M, Formisano A, Langella A, MemolaCapeceMinutolo F (2009) The influence of tool rotation on an incremental forming process. J Mater Process Technol 209(9):4621–4626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.11.028

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Petek A, Kuzman K, Suhač BA (2009) On-line system for fracture identification at incremental sheet forming. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 58(1):283–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2009.03.092

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Ambrogio G, Filice L, Micari F (2006) A force measuring based strategy for failure prevention in incremental forming. J Mater Process Technol 177(1-3):413–416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2006.04.076

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Duflou J, Tunçkol Y, Szekeres A, Vanherck P (2007) Experimental study on force measurements for single point incremental forming. J Mater Process Technol 189(1-3):65–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.01.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Arfa H, Bahloul R, BelHadjSalah H (2013) Finite element modelling and experimental investigation of single point incremental forming process of aluminum sheets: influence of process parameters on punch force monitoring and on mechanical and geometrical quality of parts. Int J Mater Form 6(4):483–510. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12289-012-1101-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Xu-hu Z, Bin T, Xia-lu Z, Hong-chao K, Jin-shan L, Lian Z (2012) Microstructure and texture of commercially pure titanium in cold deep drawing. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc Chin 22:496–502

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Chuna YB, Yu SH, Semiatin SL, Hwang SK (2005) Effect of deformation twinning on microstructure and texture evolution during cold rolling of CP-titanium. Mater Sci Eng A 398(1-2):209–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2005.03.019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Chun XU, Wen-feng ZHU (2012) Comparison of microstructures and mechanical properties between forging and rolling processes for commercially pure titanium. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 22:1939–1946

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Wyatt ZW, Joost WJ, Zhu D, Ankem S (2012) Deformation mechanisms and kinetics of time-dependent twinning in an α-titanium alloy. Int J Plast 39:119–131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Hussaina G, Gaoa L, Hayatb N, Cuia Z, Pangc YC, Dard NU (2008) Tool and lubrication for negative incremental forming of a commercially pure titanium sheet. J Mater Process Technol 203(1-3):193–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.10.043

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Honarpisheh.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sakhtemanian, M.R., Honarpisheh, M. & Amini, S. Numerical and experimental study on the layer arrangement in the incremental forming process of explosive-welded low-carbon steel/CP-titanium bimetal sheet. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95, 3781–3796 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1462-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Incremental forming
  • Layer arrangement
  • Explosive-welded bimetals
  • Low-carbon steel/CP-titanium