Evaluation of component repair using direct metal deposition from scanned data

  • Xinchang Zhang
  • Wei Li
  • Xueyang Chen
  • Wenyuan Cui
  • Frank Liou


In this work, the repair volume of AISI H13 tool steel samples with hemisphere-shaped defects was reconstructed through reverse engineering and the samples were repaired by laser-aided direct metal deposition (DMD) using Co-based alloys powder as the filler material. Microstructure characterization and elemental distribution of deposits were analyzed using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Mechanical properties of repaired samples were evaluated via tensile test and microhardness measurement. The experiment showed that a gap between deposits and substrate exists if only employing the tool path generated from the reconstructed repair volume but the gap can be removed by depositing an extra layer covering that region. Microstructure and tensile test confirmed strong metallurgical bond in the interface. Defect-free columnar structure dominated the deposits near the interface while other regions of deposits consisted of dendrite structure with interdendritic eutectics. The tensile test showed that the repaired samples have a higher ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and lower ductility compared with those of base metal. Fractography from tensile test showed repaired samples fractured brittlely at the deposits section with cracking propagating along the grain boundaries. The hardness measurement showed that the deposited layers have a much higher hardness in comparison to the substrate.


Direct metal deposition Repair Reverse engineering Additive manufacturing Tool steel 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This project was supported by National Science Foundation Grants CMMI-1547042 and CMMI 1625736, and the Intelligent Systems Center, Center for Aerospace Manufacturing Technologies, and Material Research Center at Missouri S&T. Their financial support is greatly appreciated.


  1. 1.
    Zhang K, Liu W, Shang X (2007) Research on the processing experiments of laser metal deposition shaping. Opt Laser Technol 39(3):549–557. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rafi HK, Starr TL, Stucker BE (2013) A comparison of the tensile, fatigue, and fracture behavior of Ti – 6Al – 4V and 15-5 PH stainless steel parts made by selective laser melting. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69(5-8):1299–1309. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al-Jamal OM, Hinduja S, Li L (2008) Characteristics of the bond in Cu–H13 tool steel parts fabricated using SLM. CIRP Ann 57(1):239–242. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dinda GP, Song L, Mazumder J (2008) Fabrication of Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds by direct metal deposition. Metall Mater Trans A Phys Metall Mater Sci 39(12):2914–2922. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Santos EC, Shiomi M, Osakada K, Laoui T (2006) Rapid manufacturing of metal components by laser forming. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 46(12-13):1459–1468. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baufeld B, Biest O, Van d, Gault R (2010) Additive manufacturing of Ti–6Al–4V components by shaped metal deposition: microstructure and mechanical properties. Mater Des 31:S106–S111. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weng F, Yu H, Chen C, Dai J (2015) Microstructures and wear properties of laser cladding Co-based composite coatings on Ti–6Al–4V. Mater Des 80:174–181. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Weng F, Chen C, Yu H (2014) Research status of laser cladding on titanium and its alloys: a review. Mater Des 58:412–425. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bartkowski D, Młynarczak A, Piasecki A, Dudziak B, Gościański M, Bartkowska A (2015) Microstructure, microhardness and corrosion resistance of Stellite-6 coatings reinforced with WC particles using laser cladding. Opt Laser Technol 68:191–201. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huang SW, Samandi M, Brandt M (2004) Abrasive wear performance and microstructure of laser clad WC/Ni layers. Wear 256(11-12):1095–1105. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    AlMangour B, Grzesiak D, Yang J-M (2016) Nanocrystalline TiC-reinforced {H13} steel matrix nanocomposites fabricated by selective laser melting. Mater Des 96:150–161. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    AlMangour B, Grzesiak D, Yang J-M (2017) Selective laser melting of TiB2/H13 steel nanocomposites: influence of hot isostatic pressing post-treatment. J Mater Process Technol 244:344–353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jiang WH, Kovacevic R (2007) Laser deposited TiC/H13 tool steel composite coatings and their erosion resistance. J Mater Process Technol 186(1-3):331–338. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Song J, Deng Q, Chen C, Hu D, Li Y (2006) Rebuilding of metal components with laser cladding forming. Appl Surf Sci 252(22):7934–7940. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nowotny S, Scharek S, Beyer E, Richter K-H (2007) Laser beam build-up welding: precision in repair, surface cladding, and direct 3D metal deposition. J Therm Spray Technol 16(3):344–348. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pinkerton a J, Wang W, Li L (2008) Component repair using laser direct metal deposition. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part B J Eng Manuf 222(7):827–836. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Childs THC, Akhtar SP, Hauser C, et al (2006) Selective laser melting of prealloyed high alloy steel powder beds. In: Adv. Mater. Forum III. Trans Tech Publications, pp 516–523Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Graf B, Gumenyuk A, Rethmeier M (2012) Laser metal deposition as repair technology for stainless steel and titanium alloys. Phys Procedia 39:376–381. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Paydas H, Mertens A, Carrus R, Lecomte-Beckers J, Tchoufang Tchuindjang J (2015) Laser cladding as repair technology for Ti – 6Al – 4V alloy: influence of building strategy on microstructure and hardness. Mater Des 85:497–510. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Qi H, Azer M, Singh P (2010) Adaptive toolpath deposition method for laser net shape manufacturing and repair of turbine compressor airfoils. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 48(1-4):121–131. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gao J, Chen X, Yilmaz O, Gindy N (2008) An integrated adaptive repair solution for complex aerospace components through geometry reconstruction. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 36(11-12):1170–1179. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wilson JM, Piya C, Shin YC, Zhao F, Ramani K (2014) Remanufacturing of turbine blades by laser direct deposition with its energy and environmental impact analysis. J Clean Prod 80:170–178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Liu R, Wang Z, Sparks T, Liou F, Nedic C (2017) Stereo vision-based repair of metallic components. Rapid Prototyp J 23(1):65–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Surekha K, Els-Botes A (2012) Effect of cryotreatment on tool wear behaviour of bohler K390 and AISI H13 tool steel during friction stir welding of copper. Trans Indian Inst Metals 65(3):259–264. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shamsaei N, Yadollahi A, Bian L, Thompson SM (2015) An overview of direct laser deposition for additive manufacturing; part II: mechanical behavior, process parameter optimization and control. Addit Manuf 8:12–35. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu R, Wang Z, Zhang Y, Sparks T, Liou F (2016) A smooth toolpath generation method for laser metal deposition. Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, Texas, USA: 1038-1046Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lin WC, Chen C (2006) Characteristics of thin surface layers of cobalt-based alloys deposited by laser cladding. Surf Coatings Technol 200(14-15):4557–4563. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Paul CP, Alemohammad H, Toyserkani E, Khajepour A, Corbin S (2007) Cladding of WC–12 Co on low carbon steel using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Mater Sci Eng A 464(1-2):170–176. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cui C, Guo Z, Liu Y, Xie Q, Wang Z, Hu J, Yao Y (2007) Characteristics of cobalt-based alloy coating on tool steel prepared by powder feeding laser cladding. Opt Laser Technol 39(8):1544–1550. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    D’Oliveira ASCM, da Silva PSCP, Vilar RMC (2002) Microstructural features of consecutive layers of Stellite 6 deposited by laser cladding. Surf Coatings Technol 153(2-3):203–209. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinchang Zhang
    • 1
  • Wei Li
    • 1
  • Xueyang Chen
    • 1
  • Wenyuan Cui
    • 1
  • Frank Liou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical & Aerospace EngineeringMissouri University of Science and TechnologyRollaUSA

Personalised recommendations