Effect of root pass filler metal on microstructure and mechanical properties in the multi-pass welding of duplex stainless steels ORIGINAL ARTICLE First Online: 08 December 2017 Received: 27 August 2017 Accepted: 14 November 2017 Abstract
This paper is focused on the estimation of the effect of root pass chemical composition, in multi-pass GTA Weldments, on microstructure and mechanical properties of duplex stainless steel welds. We used two different filler metals, the super duplex ER 2594 and duplex ER 2209. Microstructures of different passes of welded joints are investigated using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The relationship between mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and microstructure of welded joints is evaluated. It is found that the tensile and toughness properties of the first weldment, employing the combination of ER 2594 in the root pass and ER 2209 in the remaining, are better than that of the second weldment employing ER 2209 all passes, due to the root pass grains refinement and its alloy elements content as chromium Cr and nitrogen N. The microstructure indicates the presence of austenite in different forms on the weld zone of ER 2209, same in the case of ER 2594, but with higher content and finer grains size, in particular Widmanstätten austenite WA. Potentiodynamic polarization tests of the first weld metal evaluated in 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature have been demonstrated a corrosion resistance higher than that of the second weld metal. This work addressed the improvement of the corrosion resistance using appropriate filler metal without getting any structural heterogeneity and detrimental changes in the mechanical properties.
Keywords Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) Duplex stainless steel Root pass Filler metal Microstructure and mechanical properties Notes Acknowledgments
The authors wish to express their sincere appreciations to the Research Center in Industrial Technologies (CRTI) and Special thanks to the Laboratory of Science and Materials Engineering (LSGM). The authors would like to thank also the Pr. Moussa SEDRAOUI for their valuable suggestions and comments which helped us to improve this paper.
Gunn RN (2003) Duplex stainless steels—microstructure, properties and applications. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Abington Hall, Abington, pp 1–8
Armas IA, Moreuil SD (2009) Duplex stainless steels, British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data ISTE Ltd, p 47–50
Boluta M, Kong CY, Blackburn J, Cashell KA, Hobson PR (2016) Yb-fibre laser welding of 6 mm duplex stainless steel 2205. Phys Procedia 83:417–425.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2016.08.043 CrossRef Google Scholar
Geng S, Sun J, Guo L, Wang H (2015) Evolution of microstructure and corrosion behavior in 2205 duplex stainless steel GTA-welding joint. J Manuf Process 19:32–37.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2015.03.009 CrossRef Google Scholar
Lai R, Cai Y, Wu Y, Li F, Hua X (2016) Influence of absorbed nitrogen on microstructure and corrosion resistance of 2205 duplex stainless steel joint processed by fiber laser welding. J Mater Process Technol 231:397–405.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.01.016 CrossRef Google Scholar
Corolleur A, Fanica A, Passot G (2015) Ferrite content in the heat affected zone of duplex stainless steels. BHM 160(9):413–418.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00501-015-0408-8 Google Scholar
Muthupandi V, BalaSrinivasan P, Seshadri SK, Sundaresan S (2003) Effect of weld metal chemistry and heat input on the structure and properties of duplex stainless steel welds. Mater Sci Eng A 358(1-2):9–16.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-5093(03)00077-7 CrossRef Google Scholar
Sridhar R, Ramkumar KD, Arivazhagan N (2014) Characterization of microstructure, strength, and toughness of dissimilar weldments of Inconel 625 and duplex stainless steel SAF 2205. Acta Metall Sin (Engl. Lett.) 27(6):1018–1030.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40195-014-0116-5 CrossRef Google Scholar
Jebaraj AV, Ajaykumar L (2013) Influence of microstructural changes on impact toughness of weldment and base metal of duplex stainless steel AISI 2205 for low temperature applications. Procedia Eng 64:456–466.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.09.119 CrossRef Google Scholar
Yousefieh M, Shamanian M, Saatchi A (2011) Influence of heat input in pulsed current GTXW process on microstructure and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welds. J Iron Steel Res Int 18(9):65–69.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1006-706X(12)60036-3 CrossRef Google Scholar
Hosseini VA, Bermejo MAV, Gårdstam J, Hurtig K, Karlsson L (2016) Influence of multiple thermal cycles on microstructure of heat-affected zone in TIG-welded super duplex stainless steel. Weld World 60(2):233–246.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-016-0300-5 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ajith PM, Sathiya P, Aravindan S (2014) Characterization of microstructure, toughness, and chemical composition of friction-welded joints of UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel. Friction 2(1):82–91.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40544-014-0042-6 CrossRef Google Scholar
Pekkarinena J, Kujanpääa V (2010) The effects of laser welding parameters on the microstructure of ferritic and duplex stainless steels welds. Phys Procedia 5:517–523.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2010.08.175 CrossRef Google Scholar
Young MC, Chan SLI, Tsay LW, Shin CS (2005) Hydrogen-enhanced cracking of 2205 duplex stainless steel welds. Mater Chem Phys 91(1):21–27.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2004.10.042 CrossRef Google Scholar
Topolska S, Labanowski J (2015) Impact-toughness investigations of duplex stainless steels. Mater Technol 49(4):481–486.
10.17222/mit.2014.133 Google Scholar
Juraga I, Stojanović I, Ljubenkov B (2014) Experimental research of the duplex stainless steel welds in shipbuilding. J Nav Archit Shipbuil lndus (Brodogradnja) 65(2):73–85
Pilhagen J, Sieurin H, Sandström R (2014) Fracture toughness of a welded super duplex stainless steel. Mater Sci Eng A 606:40–45.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2014.03.049 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ramkumar KD, Mishra D, Thiruvengatam G, Sudharsan SP, Mohan TH, Saxena V, Pandey R, Arivazhagan N (2015) Investigations on the microstructure and mechanical properties of multi-pass PCGTA welding of super-duplex stainless steel. Bull Mater Sci 38(4):1–10.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12034-015-0915-y CrossRef Google Scholar
Kang DH, Lee HW (2012) Effect of different chromium additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of multipass weld joint of duplex stainless steel. Metall Mater Trans A 43(12):4678–4687.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-012-1310-6 CrossRef Google Scholar
Muthupandi V, Srinivasan PB, Shankar V, Seshadri SK, Sundaresan S (2005) Effect of nickel and nitrogen addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of power beam processed duplex stainless steel (UNS 31803) weld metals. Mater Lett 59(18):2305–2309.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2005.03.010 CrossRef Google Scholar
Pilhagen J, Sandström R (2014) Influence of nickel on the toughness of lean duplex stainless steel welds. Mater Sci Eng A 602:49–57.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2014.01.093 CrossRef Google Scholar
Eghlimi A, Shamanian M, Raeissi K (2014) Effect of current type on microstructure and corrosion resistance of super duplex stainless steel claddings produced by the gas tungsten arc welding process. Surf Coat Technol 244:45–51.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2014.01.047 CrossRef Google Scholar
Zhang Z, Jing H, Xu L, Han Y, Zhao L (2016) Investigation on microstructure evolution and properties of duplex stainless steel joint multi-pass welded by using different methods. Mater Des 109:670–685.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.07.110 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ogawa T, Koseki T (1989) Effect of composition profiles on metallurgy and corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel weld metals. Weld J 68(5):181–191
Liou HY, Hsieh RI, Tsai WT (2002) Microstructure and stress corrosion cracking in simulated heat-affected zones of duplex stainless steels. Corros Sci 44(12):2841–2856.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-938X(02)00068-9 CrossRef Google Scholar
Wang HS (2005) Effect of welding variables on cooling rate and pitting corrosion resistance in super duplex stainless weldments. Mater Trans 46(3):593–601.
https://doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.46.593 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ramkumar KD, Thiruvengatam G, Sudharsan SP, Mishra D, Arivazhagan N, Sridhar R (2014) Characterization of weld strength and impact toughness in the multi-pass welding of super-duplex stainless steel UNS 32750. Mater Des 60:125–135.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.03.031 CrossRef Google Scholar
de Lacerda JC, Cândido LC, Godefroid LB (2015) Effect of volume fraction of phases and precipitates on the mechanical behavior of UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel. Int J Fatigue 74:81–87.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2014.12.015 CrossRef Google Scholar
Zhang Z, Jing H, Xu L, Han Y, Li G, Zhao L (2017) Investigation on microstructure and impact toughness of different zones in duplex stainless steel welding joint. J Mater Eng Perform 26(1):134–150.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-016-2441-5 CrossRef Google Scholar
Belkessa B, Miroud D, Ouali N, Cheniti B (2016) Microstructure and mechanical behavior in dissimilar SAF2205/API X52 welded pipes. Acta Metall Sin (Engl Lett) 29(7):674–682.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40195-016-0428-8 CrossRef Google Scholar
Heping L, Xuejun J, Wuhan J (2011) Electrochemical corrosion behavior of the laser continuous heat treatment welded joints of 2205 duplex stainless steel. Univ Technol Mater Sci Ed 26(6):1140–1147.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11595-011-0378-y CrossRef Google Scholar
Neissi R, Shamanian M, Hajihashemi M (2016) The effect of constant and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding on joint properties of 2205 duplex stainless steel to 316L austenitic stainless steel. J Mater Eng Perform 25(5):2017–2028.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-016-2033-4 CrossRef Google Scholar
Ma L, Hu S, Shen J (2017) Microstructure, properties and weldability of duplex stainless steel 2101. J Mater Eng Perform 26(1):250–257.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-016-2428-2 CrossRef Google Scholar
Atapour M, Sarlak H, Esmailzadeh M (2016) Pitting corrosion susceptibility of friction stir welded lean duplex stainless steel joints. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83(5-8):721–728.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7601-5 CrossRef Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2017