Machining characteristics of 18Ni-300 steel in additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 61 Downloads

Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) possesses capability of building complicated parts that are otherwise difficult to manufacture by the conventional methods. However, the dimensional and geometric accuracies as well as surface quality of an AM-produced part are inferior to the conventionally machined part, which hinders the AM applications. Thus, an additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing (ASHM) method is developed to take advantage of both the AM and precision subtractive manufacture (SM). However, the microstructures of the AMed parts are different from those of the conventional metallic parts. In addition, the residual stress induced by the AM stages influences the machined residual stress reconstruction in the subtractive stages. In order to investigate the effect of microstructure and the AM-induced residual stress on the machining characteristics, a milling experiment is conducted on AMed and wrought samples. The results of the cutting force, machined residual stress, and surface roughness are compared. It is found that the machining characteristics of AMed samples are different from those of wrought samples due to different microstructures and residual stress evolutions. The paper provides a guidance to the optimization of the processing parameters in the ASHM.

Keywords

Additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing 18Ni maraging steel Microstructure Cutting force Machined residual stress Machined surface roughness 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Delgado J, Ciurana J, Rodríguez CA (2012) Influence of process parameters on part quality and mechanical properties for DMLS and SLM with iron-based materials. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 60(5–8):601–610.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-011-3643-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang XC, Laoui T, Bonse J, Kruth JP, Lauwers B, Froyen L (2002) Direct selective laser sintering of hard metal powders: experimental study and simulation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 19(5):351–357.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s001700200024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boschetto A, Giordano V, Veniali F (2013) Surface roughness prediction in fused deposition modelling by neural networks. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67(9–12):2727–2742.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-012-4687-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bikas H, Stavropoulos P, Chryssolouris G (2016) Additive manufacturing methods and modelling approaches: a critical review. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83(1–4):389–405.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7576-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gorunov AI, Gilmutdinov AK (2016) Study of the effect of heat treatment on the structure and properties of the specimens obtained by the method of direct metal deposition. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86(9–12):2567–2574.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8405-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Terrazas CA, Gaytan SM, Rodriguez E, Espalin D, Murr LE, Medina F, Wicker RB (2014) Multi-material metallic structure fabrication using electron beam melting. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 71(1–4):33–45.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-5449-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fessler JR, Merz R, Nickel AH, Prinz FB, Weiss LE (1996) Laser deposition of metals for shape deposition manufacturing. Proceedings of the solid freeform fabrication symposium. Austin, TX: University of Texas at Austin, 117–124Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Freyer C, Klocke F (2001) Fast manufacture of high strength tools from steel using CMB. In: Proceedings of SME Conference Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing, 14–17 May, CincinnatiGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Song YA, Park S, Choi D, Jee H (2005) 3D welding and milling: Part I—a direct approach for freeform fabrication of metallic prototypes. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45(9):1057–1062.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2004.11.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kruth JP, Leu MC, Nakagawa T (1998) Progress in additive manufacturing and rapid prototyping. CRIP Ann-Manuf Technol 47(2):525–540.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-8506(07)63240-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ye ZP, Zhang ZJ, Jin X, Xiao MZ, JZ S (2016) Study of hybrid additive manufacturing based on pulse laser wire depositing and milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(5):2237–2248.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-8894-8 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xiong XH, Zhang HO, Wang GL, Wang GX (2010) Hybrid plasma deposition and milling for an aeroengine double helix integral impeller made of superalloy. Robot Cim-Int Manuf 26(4):291–295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2009.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jeng JY, Lin MC (2001) Mold fabrication and modification using hybrid processes of selective laser cladding and milling. J Mater Process Technol 110(1):98–103.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(00)00850-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Choi DS, Lee SH, Shin BS, Whang KH, Song YA, Park SH, Jee HS (2001) Development of a direct metal freeform fabrication technique using CO2 laser welding and milling technology. J Mater Process Technol 113(1–3):273–279.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(01)00652-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Karunakaran KP, Suryakumar S, Pushpa V, Akula S (2010) Low cost integration of additive and subtractive processes for hybrid layered manufacturing. Robot Cim-Int Manuf 26(5):490–499.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2010.03.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aziz MSA, Ueda T, Furumoto T, Abe S, Hosokawa A, Yassin A (2012) Study on machinability of laser sintered materials fabricated by layered manufacturing system: influence of different hardness of sintered materials. Proc CIRP 4:79–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2012.10.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kasperovich G, Hausmann J (2015) Improvement of fatigue resistance and ductility of TiAl6V4 processed by selective laser melting. J Mater Process Technol 220:202–214.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.01.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Du W, Bai Q, Zhang B (2016) A novel method for additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing of metallic parts. Proc Manuf 5:1018–1030.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2016.08.067 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang B, Li Y, Bai Q (2017) Defect formation mechanisms in selective laser melting: a review. Chin J Mech Eng-en 30(3):515–527.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10033-017-0121-5 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kruth JP, Froyen L, Van Vaerenbergh J, Mercelis P, Rombouts M, Lauwers B (2004) Selective laser melting of iron-based powder. J Mater Process Technol 149(1):616–622.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2003.11.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cubberly WH, Masseria V, Kirkpatrick CW (1979) ASM metals handbookGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shifeng W, Shuai L, Qingsong W, Yan C, Sheng Z, Yusheng S (2014) Effect of molten pool boundaries on the mechanical properties of selective laser melting parts. J Mater Process Technol 214(11):2660–2667.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jägle EA, Choi PP, Van Humbeeck J, Raabe D (2014) Precipitation and austenite reversion behavior of a maraging steel produced by selective laser melting. J Mater Res 29(17):2072–2079.  https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2014.204 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang ZM, Guan K, Gao M, Li XY, Chen XF, Zeng XY (2012) The microstructure and mechanical properties of deposited-IN718 by selective laser melting. J Alloy Compd 513:518–523.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2011.10.107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shunmugavel M, Polishetty A, Littlefair G (2015) Microstructure and mechanical properties of wrought and additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V cylindrical bars. Proc Technol 20:231–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.protcy.2015.07.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bordin A, Ghiotti A, Bruschi S, Facchini L, Bucciotti F (2014) Machinability characteristics of wrought and EBM CoCrMo alloys. Proc CIRP 14:89–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2014.03.082
  27. 27.
    Zhang XD, Hansen N, Gao YK, Huang XX (2012) Hall–Petch and dislocation strengthening in graded nanostructured steel. Acta Mater 60(16):5933–5943.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2012.07.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tönshoff HK, Arendt C, Amor RB (2000) Cutting of hardened steel. CIRP Ann-Manuf Techn 49(2):547–566.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-8506(07)63455-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mercelis P, Kruth J (2006) Residual stresses in selective laser sintering and selective laser melting. Rapid Prototyp J 12(5):254–265.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13552540610707013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J-C S, Liang S (2012) Modeling of residual stresses in milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 1(5-8):1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-012-4211-3 Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sutherland JW, Babin TS (1988) The geometry of surfaces generated by the bottom of an end mill. Trans NAMRC 16:202–208Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chen W (2000) Cutting forces and surface finish when machining medium hardness steel using CBN tools. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 40(3):455–466.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0890-6955(99)00011-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hassan AM, Havajneh MT (2001) Statistical analysis of the effects of machining parameters and workpiece hardness on the surface finish of machined medium carbon steel. J Mater Eng Perform 10(3):282–289.  https://doi.org/10.1361/105994901770344999 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of EducationDalian University of TechnologyDalianPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Energy EngineeringSouthern University of Science and TechnologyShenzhenPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations