Optimizing mortar extrusion using poplar wood sawdust for masonry building block

  • J. G. Ndong Engone
  • Y. Vanhove
  • C. Djelal
  • H. Kada


The wood industry generates some 12 million tons of waste in France, 60% of which basically stems from sawmills. The reuse of this waste in the most common construction materials (e.g., concrete) may offer a sustainable solution. In the literature, the optimization of composites formulations generally focuses on aggregates plant pretreatment regardless of classical optimization parameters and the implementation process that can afford to get a high strength composite. The work presented herein is intended to optimize the mix design of a mortar made from poplar wood by-products, without involving any pretreatment. The conventional mix design parameters (i.e., paste volume, W/C ratio) have been varied. An optimal implementation technique (i.e., extrusion) was used. The wood mortar mix designs have been optimized in order to obtain composites compliant with French standard NF EN 771-3/CN, with respect to criteria regarding both dimensional tolerance and mechanical strength for structural elements (i.e., above 8 MPa at 7 days).A mortar mix design, optimized by means of extrusion, has been used as a reference. Poplar wood particles have been introduced through substitution for the sand volume. Test results indicate that the blocks produced from two wood mortar mixes with 60 and 70% wood aggregate-for-sand substitution rates are in line with the normative requirements relative to dimensional tolerances and mechanical strength. This material compliance underscores the potential use of such blocks as load-bearing masonry elements, thus facilitating the building of structures with a limited environmental impact.


Extrusion Sand mortars Cement-based composites Sawdust Poplar wood Buildingblocks 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors would like to thank the Nord-Pas de Calais Regional Council for financing this study. We are also grateful to the ASBOIS Company, BIALLAIS quarries and HOLCIM cement works in Lumbres for all their support throughout this research project.


  1. 1.
    centre regional de la propriete forestiere. http :// 12.02.15)
  2. 2.
    Aigbomian EP, Fan M Development of wood-crete building materials from sawdust and waste paper. Constr Build Mater 40(2013):361–366Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fan M, KorNdikontar M, Zhou X, Ngamveng JN Cement-bonded composites made from woods: compatibility of wood and cement. Constr Build1 Mater 36(2012):135–140Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mohammed BS, Abdullahi M, Hoong CK (2014) Statistical models for concrete containing wood chipping as partial replacement to fine aggregate. Constr Build Mater 55:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lo CF, Biblis EJ (1968) Effect on the setting of southern pine-cement mixture. For Prod J 18:28–34Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yi MW, Tomita B, Hiramats Y et al (2002) Study of hydration behaviors of wood-cement mixtures: compatibility of cement mixed with wood fiber strand obtained by the water-vapor explosion process. J Wood Sci 48:365–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Govin A, Peschard A, Guyonnet R (2006) Modification of cement hydration at early ages. Cem Concr Compos 28:12–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ashori A, Tabarsa T, Amosi F (2012) Evaluation of using waste timber railway sleepers in wood-cement. Constr Build Mater 27:126–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Melo Filho JDA, Silva FDA, Tolêdo-Filho RD (2013) Degradation kinetics and aging mechanisms on sisal fiber cement composite systems. Cem Concr Compos 40:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tolêdo-Filho RD, Silva FDA, Fairbairn EMR, Filho JDAM (2009) Durability of compression molded sisal fiber reinforced mortar laminates. Constr Build Mater 23:2409–2420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tonoli H, Joaquim GH, Arseneb A, Bilba MA, Savastano Jr K (2010) Performance and durability of cement based composites reinforced with refined sisal pulp. Mater Manuf Process 22:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Peled A, Shah S (2003) Processing effects in cementitious composites: extrusion and casting. J Mater Civ Eng 15:192–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lecompte T, Perrot A, Subrianto A, Le Duigou A, Ausias G (2015) A novel pull-out device used to study the influence of pressure during processing of cement-based material reinforced with coir. Constr Build Mater 78:224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Huyen TLN, Queneudec T Kint M, Remond C, Chabbert B, Dheill R-M Saccharification of miscanthus x giganteus, incorporation of lignocellulosic by-product in cementitious matrix. C R Biologies 36(2011):837e1–837.e11Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kuder KG, Shah SP (2007) Tailoring extruded hpfrcc to be nailable. ACI Mater J 104:526–534Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coussot P, Ancey C (1999) Rheophysical classification of concentrated suspensions and granular pastes. Phys Rev 59:4445–4457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Toutou Z, Roussel N The squeezing test a tool to identify firm cement based materials rheological behavior and evaluate their extrusion ability. Cem Concr Res 35(2005):1891–1899Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khelifi H, Perrot A, Lecompte T, Rangeard D, Ausias G (2013) Prediction of extrusion load and liquid phase filtration during ram extrusion of high solid volume fraction pastes. Powder Technol 249:258–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Savastano JH, Warden PG, Coutts RSP (2003) Mechanically pulped sisal as reinforcement in cementitious matrices. Cem Concr Compos 25:311–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Naik TR, Friberg TS, Chun YM (2004) Use of pulp and paper mill residual solids in production of cellucrete. Cem Concr Res 34:1229–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wei YM, Zhou YG, Tomita B (2000) Evaluation of wood species effects on compatibility and strength with ordinary portland cement. J Wood Sci 46:296–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dupain R, J. C (2009) Saint-Arroman.Granulats, sols. In: ciments et bétons : caractérisation des matériaux de génie civil par les essais en laboratoire, vol 1. CASTEILLA, FranceGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. G. Ndong Engone
    • 1
  • Y. Vanhove
    • 1
  • C. Djelal
    • 1
  • H. Kada
    • 1
  1. 1.EA 451, Laboratoire de Génie Civil et de géo-Environnement (LGCgE)Univ. ArtoisBéthuneFrance

Personalised recommendations