Forming behavior and microstructural evolution during single point incremental forming process of AA-6061 aluminum alloy sheet

  • Vivek Kumar Barnwal
  • Shanta Chakrabarty
  • Asim Tewari
  • K. Narasimhan
  • Sushil K. Mishra


AA-6061 aluminum alloy is extensively used in automobile and aerospace industries due to its high strength-to-weight ratio. However, this material shows limited formability in age-hardened condition at room temperature. Therefore, a new forming method known as single point incremental forming (SPIF) to deform the sheet was adopted. The SPIF experiments and finite element method (FEM) simulation were performed to form the sheet into the desired conical shape. Digital image correlation (DIC) method was used to measure the major and minor strains post deformation experimentally, and results were compared with FEM results. Detailed microstructural study was performed to understand the deformation behavior of AA-6061 aluminum alloy sheets during SPIF. It is observed that plastic anisotropy has strong effect on microstructure and texture development in different directions of AA-6061 alloy sheet during SPIF. It is also observed that volume fraction of goss and S texture components remains stable, whereas volume fraction of cube and brass texture changes significantly.


Single point incremental forming Digital image correlation Finite element methods Deformation mechanism Microstructure Crystallographic texture 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided for this work by the National Centre for Aerospace Innovation and Research, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, India.


  1. 1.
    Raghavan RS, Tiwari SM, Mishra SK, Carsley JE (2014) Recovery quantification and onset of recrystallization in aluminium alloys. Philos Mag Lett 94:755–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Davies ER (2008) Introduction to texture analysis. Handbook of Texture Analysis Imperial College PressGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mahabunphachai S, Koç M (2010) Investigations on forming of aluminum 5052 and 6061 sheet alloys at warm temperatures. Mater Des 31:2422–2434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Demir H, Gündüz S (2009) The effects of aging on machinability of 6061 aluminium alloy. Mater Des 30:1480–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Raju P, Venkateswarlu G, Davidson MJ (2012) Formability studies on AA 6061 sheet metal for automotive body structures using deform-2D. Int J Adv Sci Tech Res 4:638–644Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barnwal VK, Tewari A, Narasimhan K, Mishra SK (2016) Effect of plastic anisotropy on forming behavior of AA-6061 aluminum alloy sheet. J Strain Anal Eng Des 51:507–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mariani E, Ghassemieh E (2010) Microstructure evolution of 6061 O Al alloy during ultrasonic consolidation: an insight from electron backscatter diffraction. Acta Mater 58:2492–2503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wong CC, Ta D, Lin J (2003) A review of spinning, shear forming and flow forming processes. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 43:1419–1435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buffa G, Campanella D, Fratini L (2012) On the improvement of material formability in SPIF operation through tool stirring action. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 66:1343–1351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aerens R, Eyckens P, Bael A, Duflou JR (2009) Force prediction for single point incremental forming deduced from experimental and FEM observations. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 46:969–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jeswiet J, Duflou JR, Szekeres A (2005) Forces in single point and two point incremental forming. Adv Mater Res 6–8:449–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Park JJ, Kim YH (2003) Fundamental studies on the incremental sheet metal forming technique. J Mater Process Technol 140:447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Malhotra R, Xue L, Belytschko T, Cao J (2012) Mechanics of fracture in single point incremental forming. J Mater Process Technol 212:1573–1590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eyckens P, Belkassem B, Henrard C, Gu J, Sol H, Habraken AM, Duflou JR, Bael A, Houtte P (2010) Strain evolution in the single point incremental forming process: digital image correlation measurement and finite element prediction. Int J Mater Form 4:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Silva MB, Nielsen PS, Bay N, Martins PF (2011) Failure mechanisms in single-point incremental forming of metals. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 56:893–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ambrogio G, Filice L, Gagliardi F (2011) Enhancing incremental sheet forming performance using high speed. Key Eng Mater 473:847–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Emmens WC, van den Boogaard AH (2009) An overview of stabilizing deformation mechanisms in incremental sheet forming. J Mater Process Technol 209:3688–3695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jackson K, Allwood J (2009) The mechanics of incremental sheet forming. J Mater Process Technol 209:1158–1174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Emmens WC, van den Boogaard AH (2009) Incremental forming by continuous bending under tension—an experimental investigation. J Mater Process Technol 209:5456–5463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fiorentino a (2013) Force-based failure criterion in incremental sheet forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68:557–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bambach S, Hirt MG (2003) Modelling and experimental evaluation of the incremental CNC sheet metal forming process. In: Proceedings 7th COMPLASGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pandivelan C, Jeevanantham AK (2015) Formability evaluation of AA 6061 alloy sheets on single point incremental forming using CNC vertical milling Machin. J Mater Environ Sci 6:1343–1353Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Barnwal VK, Raghavan R, Tewari A, Narasimhan K, Mishra SK (2017) Effect of microstructure and texture on forming behaviour of AA-6061 aluminium alloy sheet. Mater Sci Eng A 679:56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mishin OV, Bay B, Jensen DJ (2000) Through-thickness texture gradients in cold-rolled aluminum. Metall Mater Trans A 31:1653–1662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Martins JDP, De Carvalho ALM, Padilha AF (2012) Texture analysis of cold rolled and annealed aluminum alloy produced by twin-roll casting. Mater Res 15:97–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Skrotzki W, Hünsche I, Hüttenrauch J, Oertel CG, Brokmeier HG, Höppel HW, Topic I (2008) Texture and mechanical anisotropy of ultrafine-grained aluminum alloy AA6016 produced by accumulative roll bonding. Texture Stress Microstruct 2008:1–8Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Engler O, Hirsch J (2002) Texture control by thermomechanical processing of AA6xxx Al–Mg–Si sheet alloys for automotive applications—a review. Mater Sci Eng A 336:249–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dumoulin OGLS, Engler O (2012) Description of plastic anisotropy in AA6063-T6 using the crystal plasticity finite element method. Model Simul Mater Sci Eng 055008:1–20Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Engler O, Vatne HE (1998) Modeling the recrystallization textures of aluminum alloys after hot deformation. JOM 50:23–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    ASTM E8 (2010) ASTM E8/E8M standard test methods for tension testing of metallic materials 1. Annu B ASTM Stand 4:1–27Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Conshohocken W (1998) Standard test method for plastic strain ratio r for sheet metal 1. Methods 03:1–8Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bijker S, (2006) How to perform adequate optical strain measurements on a sheet metal truck bumper. Report MT06.56Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mishra SK, Desai SG, Pant P, Narasimhan K, Samajdar I (2009) Improved predictability of forming limit curves through microstructural inputs. Int J Mater Form 2:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Durante M, Formisano a L a, Capece Minutolo FM (2009) The influence of tool rotation on an incremental forming process. J Mater Process Technol 209:4621–4626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Durante M, Formisano A, Langella A (2010) Comparison between analytical and experimental roughness values of components created by incremental forming. J Mater Process Technol 210:1934–1941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Durante M, Formisano A, Langella A (2011) Observations on the influence of tool-sheet contact conditions on an incremental forming process. J Mater Eng Perform 20:941–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hussain G, Gao L, Hayat N, Cui Z, Pang YC, Dar NU (2008) Tool and lubrication for negative incremental forming of a commercially pure titanium sheet. J Mater Process Technol 203:193–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chakrabarty J (2006) Theory of plasticity: third edition. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bramley AN, Jeswiet J, Micari F, Duflou J, Allwood J (2005) Asymmetric single point incremental forming of sheet metal. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 54:88–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Eyckens P, He S, Van Bael A, Van Houtte P, Duflou J (2007) Forming limit predictions for the serrated strain paths in single point incremental sheet forming. AIP Conf Proc 908:141. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dieter GE (2014) Mechanical metallurgy. CreateSpace Independent Publishing PlatformGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Verlinden B, Driver J, Samajdar I, Doherty RD (2014) Thermo-mechanical processing of metallic materials. Pergamon materials series. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Engler O, Aegerter J (2014) Texture and anisotropy in the Al–Mg alloy AA 5005—part II: correlation of texture and anisotropic properties. Mater Sci Eng A 618:663–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wen XY, Long ZD, Yin WM, Zhai T, Li Z, Das SK (2006) Texture evolution in continuous casting AA5052 aluminum alloy hot band during equi-biaxial stretching. TMS 99–107Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ghosh M, Miroux A, Kestens LAI (2015) Correlating r-value and through thickness texture in Al–Mg–Si alloy sheets. J Alloys Compd 619:585–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vivek Kumar Barnwal
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Shanta Chakrabarty
    • 4
  • Asim Tewari
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. Narasimhan
    • 4
  • Sushil K. Mishra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.National Centre for Aerospace Innovation and ResearchIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Graduate Institute of Ferrous TechnologyPohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH)- 77 Cheongam-roPohang, GyeongbukSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials ScienceIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations