BHF-window-based research of BHF technology applicability at elevated temperature

  • Wei Chen
  • Long Chen
  • Ahar Benjamin Ter
  • Yinxia Zhu
  • Luyou Yue


Thermal forming processes and blank-holder force (BHF) technology can both effectively improve the formability of high strength steel (HSS). However, whether the BHF technology is applicable at elevated temperature has yet to be researched. So, in this paper, to evaluate its applicability, BHF window was selected and its size was observed. The cylindrical cup was selected as the research object and its theoretical BHF windows at temperatures from room temperature (RT) to 400 °C, based on plastic theory, were constructed and verified by experiments. Then, main factors contributing to the change of BHF window as temperature rose were analyzed and effective methods for expanding BHF window size were studied. The experimental date, according well with the theoretical BHF windows with the exception of that at temperature of 300~350 °C because of the “blue brittle,” prove the validity of theoretical BHF window. The size of BHF window kept shrinking as temperature rose, which means that it will be more difficult to implement BHF technology at higher temperatures. Initial diameter of blank, coefficient of friction (COF) between blank and die surface and material property are the main factors that affect the size of BHF window at RT or elevated temperatures. Therefore, certain temperatures possibly resulting in brittle fracture of blank should be avoided. Then, reasonable blank sizes and reducing COF could provide a reasonable size of BHF window and make implementing BHF technology in thermal sheet-forming feasible.


Thermal sheet forming BHF technology BHF window Cylindrical cup 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Mori K, Maki S, Tanaka Y (2005) Warm and hot stamping of ultra high tensile strength steel sheets using resistance heating. CIRP Ann-Manuf Techn 54:209–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sen N, Kurgan N (2016) Improving deep drawability of HC300LA sheet metal by warm forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 82:985–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Obermeyer EJ, Majlessi SA (1998) A review of recent advances in the application of blank holder force towards improving the forming limits of sheet metal parts. J Mater Process Tech 75:222–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yoshihara S, Manabe KI, Nishimura H (2005) Effect of blank holder force control in deep-drawing process of magnesium alloy sheet. J Mater Process Tech 170:579–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doege E, Sommer N (1983) Optimization of the blank-holder force during deep drawing of rectangular parts. Stahl und Eisen 103:139–142Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Siebel E, Beisswänger H (1955) Tiefziehen. Hanser, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zeng XM, Mahdavian SM (1998) Critical conditions of wrinkling in deep drawing at elevated temperature. J Mater Process Tech 84:38–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lin ZQ, Yu ZQ, Sun CZ, Chen GL (2005) Formability window of aluminum alloy sheet at variable blank-holder force. The Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals 15:1162Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yossifon S, Sweeney K, Ahmetoglu M, Altan T (1992) On the acceptable blank-holder force range in the deep-drawing process. J Mater Process Tech 33:175–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lorenzo DR, Fratini L, Micari F (1999) Optimal blankholder force path in sheet metal forming processes: an Al based procedure. CIRP Ann-Manuf Techn 48:231–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Osakada K, Wang CC, Mori K (1995) Controlled FEM simulation for determining history of blank holding force in deep drawing. CIRP Ann-Manuf Techn 44:243–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang WR, Chen GL, Lin ZQ, Li SH (2007) Determination of optimal blank holder force trajectories for segmented binders of step rectangle box using PID closed-loop FEM simulation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 32:1074–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meng B, Fu MW, Wan M (2015) Drawability and frictional behavior of pure molybdenum sheet in deep-drawing process at elevated temperature. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 78:1005–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Candra S, Batan IML, Berata W, Pramono AS (2015) Analytical study and FEM simulation of the maximum varying blank holder force to prevent cracking on cylindrical cup deep drawing. Procedia CIRP 26:548–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lin P, Sun Y, Chi CZ, Wang WX (2017) Effect of plastic anisotropy of ZK60 magnesium alloy sheet on its forming characteristics during deep drawing process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88:1629–1637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Leu DK (1999) The limiting drawing ratio for plastic instability of the cup-drawing process. J Mater Process Tech 86:168–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Senior BW (1956) Flange wrinkling in deep-drawing operations. J Mech Phys Solids 4:235–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Qin SJ, Xiong BQ, Lu H, Zhang TT (2012) Critical blank-holder force in axisymmetric deep drawing. T Nonferr Metal Soc 22:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tigrinho LMV, Chemin Filho RA, Marcondes PVP (2013) Fracture analysis approach of DP600 steel when subjected to different stress/strain states during deformation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69:1017–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ma B, Liu ZG, Jiang Z, Wu XD, Diao K, Wan M (2016) Prediction of forming limit in DP590 steel sheet forming: an extended fracture criterion. Mater Design 96:401–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Singh SK, Mahesh K, Gupta AK (2010) Prediction of mechanical properties of extra deep drawn steel in blue brittle region using artificial neural network. Mater Design 31:2288–2295CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Chen
    • 1
  • Long Chen
    • 1
  • Ahar Benjamin Ter
    • 1
  • Yinxia Zhu
    • 1
  • Luyou Yue
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations