Springback behaviors of bi-layered non-homogeneous bellows in hydroforming

  • Jing Liu
  • Yang Liu
  • Lanyun Li
  • Xiao Li


Due to the complicated material and structural characteristics of bi-layered non-homogeneous bellows (BNBs) in hydroforming, the bellow deviates easily from its designed profile and this inevitable phenomenon results in a low forming precision. Therefore, it is important to study the springback behavior of bellows for precision forming. Based on finite element (FE) analysis, comparative studies on profiles of single-layered bellows, bi-layered homogeneous bellows (BHBs), and BNBs with two expansion ratios (k, the ratio of outer-to-inner diameter) k = 1.2 and k = 1.6 as well as two materials 304SS and Inconel 718 are implemented. The springback behaviors of different simulation settings are investigated, and several conclusions are drawn: (1) after springback, the U-shaped convolution profile is changed to tongue shape accompanied by a 2.5~38.5% axial elongation and a 0.1~0.6% radial shrinkage; (2) the springback tendency grows with the increase of number of layers, the improvement of mechanical properties of material, and the decrease of expansion ratio.


Hydroforming Bi-layered non-homogeneous bellows (BNBs) Springback behavior Finite element analysis 


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© Springer-Verlag London Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Materials Processing Engineering, School of Material Science and EngineeringXi’an Shiyou UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Solidification ProcessingNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Bime, Bremen Institute of Mechanical Engineering, MAPEX Center for Materials and ProcessingUniversity of BremenBremenGermany

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