Considering the relatively poor surface and subsurface quality of workpieces that are ground by coarse-grained grinding wheels, the nanosecond ultraviolet laser micro-structuring of coarse-grained diamond grinding wheels and the grinding performance of micro-structured grinding wheels were investigated in this study. In addition, the effect of two processing sequences on the topographical characteristics of the grooves and the effect of the groove angle (α) on the surface roughness (Ra) of the ground workpiece were explored. Furthermore, the surface quality of workpieces that were ground by micro-structured (V-shaped and W-shaped patterns) and non-structured diamond grinding wheels and the grinding ratio (G) of the grinding wheels were comparatively analyzed. The results demonstrate the following: Compared with the grinding wheel that was subjected to micro-structuring followed by sharpening, the surface of the grinding wheel that was subjected to sharpening followed by micro-structuring had a more integral groove structure. Neither an overly large α nor an overly small α was favorable for improving the surface quality of the workpiece that was ground by a micro-structured grinding wheel. When α = 60°, the minimum Ra of the workpiece was attained. The Ra of the workpieces that were ground by the grinding wheel with a V-shaped pattern (grinding wheel A) was 17–31% less than the Ra of the workpieces that were ground by the non-structured grinding wheel (grinding wheel C). The Ra of the workpieces that were ground by the grinding wheel with a W-shaped pattern (grinding wheel B) was 32–41% less than the Ra of the workpieces that were ground by grinding wheel C. The grinding performance of the micro-structured grinding wheels was related not only to the geometric parameters of the grooves but also to the micro-structure pattern. The W-shaped pattern was superior to the V-shaped pattern in terms of cooling and chip removal. Grinding wheel A and grinding wheel B had similar abrasion resistance, which were 26% less and 23% less than the abrasion resistance of grinding wheel C, respectively.
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