Advertisement

Open-source wire and arc additive manufacturing system: formability, microstructures, and mechanical properties

  • X. Lu
  • Y. F. Zhou
  • X. L. Xing
  • L. Y. Shao
  • Q. X. Yang
  • S. Y. Gao
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

The inexpensive cost and high manufacture efficient metal wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) system was designed in this work. Its application potential was evaluated from the three aspects of formability, microstructures, and mechanical properties. By using compulsory cooling solution implemented in the open-source WAAM system, the complex-shaped metal parts were deposited completely with no obvious defects, such as cracks, pores, or incomplete fusion. The properties of the WAAM part were evaluated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microhardness, and microtensile test. The results indicate that the formability of metal parts fabricated by the open-source WAAM system was improved by using compulsory cooling solution. The microstructures of the WAAM part are exhibited as granular structure which consisted of the granular ferrite and the residual austenite interspersed with a little pearlite in the intermediate zone. And the average ferrite grain size of non-overlapping layer is relatively smaller than that of overlapping layer. The specimen perpendicular to the building direction exhibits a better mechanical property.

Keywords

Additive manufacturing Gas metal arc welding Microstructures Overlapping layer Open-source 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Gibson I, Rosen DW, Stucker B (2010) Additive manufacturing technologies. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mies D, Marsden W, Warde S (2016) Overview of additive manufacturing informatics: “a digital thread”. Integr Mater Manuf Innov 5(1):1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Strutt PR (1980) A comparative study of electron beam and laser melting of M2 tool steel. Mater Sci Eng 44(2):239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Unocic RR, Dupont JN (2004) Process efficiency measurements in the laser engineered net shaping process. Metall Mater Trans B Process Metall Mater Process Sci 35(1):143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    DuPont JN, Marder AR (1995) Thermal efficiency of arc welding processes. Weld J 74(12):406s–416sGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ding DH, Pan ZX, Cuiuri D, Li HJ (2015) Wire-feed additive manufacturing of metal components: technologies, developments and future interests. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81(1):465–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yang DQ, He CJ, Zhang GJ (2016) Forming characteristics of thin-wall steel parts by double electrode GMAW based additive manufacturing. J Mater Process Technol 227:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fu YH, Wang GL, Zhang HO, Liang LY (2016) Optimization of surface appearance for wire and arc additive manufacturing of Bainite steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2016:1–13Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xiong J, Zhang GJ, Zhang WH (2015) Forming appearance analysis in multi-layer single-pass GMAW-based additive manufacturing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 80(9):1767–1776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horii T, Ishikawa M, Kirihara S, Miyamoto Y, Yamanaka N (2007) Development of freeform fabrication of metals by three dimensional micro-welding. Sol State Phenom, Proceedings of DIS, Osaka, pp 189–194Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang H, Jiang W, Ouyang J, Kovacevic R (2004) Rapid prototyping of 4043 Al-alloy parts by VP-GTAW. J Mater Process Technol 148(1):93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shen C, Pan ZX, Cuiuri D, Ding DH, Li HJ (2016) Influences of deposition current and interpass temperature to the Fe3Al-based iron aluminide fabricated using wire-arc additive manufacturing process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2016:1–10Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cong BQ, Ding JL, Williams S (2015) Effect of arc mode in cold metal transfer process on porosity of additively manufactured Al-6.3%Cu alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 76(9):1593–1606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang F, Williams S, Colegrove P, Antonysamy AA (2013) Microstructure and mechanical properties of wire and arc additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V. Metall Mater Trans A 44(2):968–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li KH, Chen JS, Zhang YM (2007) Double-electrode GMAW process and control. Weld J 86(8):231Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anzalone GC, Zhang CL, Wijnen B, Sanders PG, Pearce JM (2013) A low-cost open-source metal 3-D printer. IEEE Access 1:803–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Haselhuhn AS, Gooding EJ, Glover AG, Anzalone GC, Wijnen B, Sanders PG, Pearce JM (2014) Substrate release mechanisms for gas metal arc weld 3D aluminum metal printing. 3D. Print Addit Manuf 1(4):204–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Haselhuhn AS, Wijnen B, Anzalone GC, Sanders PG, Pearce JM (2015) In situ formation of substrate release mechanisms for gas metal arc weld metal 3-D printing. J Mater Process Technol 226:50–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pinar A, Wijnen B, Anzalone GC, Havens TC, Sanders PG, Pearce JM (2015) Low-cost open-source voltage and current monitor for gas metal arc weld 3D printing. J Sens 2015(3):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Johann CR (2016) Delta robot 3D printer with extrusion frame. RepRap. http://reprap.org/wiki/Kossel. Accessed 24 July 2016
  21. 21.
    Bhadeshia HKDH (2008) Application of phase transformation theory to welding. POSCO Lectures, Portland, 16th (February)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Petch NJ (1953) The cleavage strength of polycrystals. J Iron Steel Inst 174(1):25–28Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Mechanical EngineeringYanshan UniversityQinhuangdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science & TechnologyYanshan UniversityQinhuangdaoPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations