Open-source wire and arc additive manufacturing system: formability, microstructures, and mechanical properties

  • X. Lu
  • Y. F. Zhou
  • X. L. Xing
  • L. Y. Shao
  • Q. X. Yang
  • S. Y. Gao


The inexpensive cost and high manufacture efficient metal wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) system was designed in this work. Its application potential was evaluated from the three aspects of formability, microstructures, and mechanical properties. By using compulsory cooling solution implemented in the open-source WAAM system, the complex-shaped metal parts were deposited completely with no obvious defects, such as cracks, pores, or incomplete fusion. The properties of the WAAM part were evaluated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microhardness, and microtensile test. The results indicate that the formability of metal parts fabricated by the open-source WAAM system was improved by using compulsory cooling solution. The microstructures of the WAAM part are exhibited as granular structure which consisted of the granular ferrite and the residual austenite interspersed with a little pearlite in the intermediate zone. And the average ferrite grain size of non-overlapping layer is relatively smaller than that of overlapping layer. The specimen perpendicular to the building direction exhibits a better mechanical property.


Additive manufacturing Gas metal arc welding Microstructures Overlapping layer Open-source 


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© Springer-Verlag London Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Mechanical EngineeringYanshan UniversityQinhuangdaoPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science & TechnologyYanshan UniversityQinhuangdaoPeople’s Republic of China

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