On a novel severe plastic deformation method: severe forward extrusion (SFE)

  • M. Riahi
  • M. H. Ehsanian
  • A. Asgari
  • F. Djavanroodi


Severe plastic deformation is a process in which high strain is applied to the samples to improve its mechanical properties. In this research, a new severe plastic deformation method which is based on forward extrusion process is presented to improve mechanical properties of materials, by reducing pressing force and increasing strain uniformity. Also, achieving high-strength materials with bigger size which can meet the industry is another goal of this new method. Initially, the process and related die design are introduced. Then, effects of the severe forward extrusion process on the aluminum mechanical properties such as material strength, hardness, fractographic analysis, and fatigue behavior are evaluated. Next, by using finite element method, some effects of die parameters on the pressing force and strain are studied. Finally, the obtained results show that the yielding stress is increased about 108%, by applying six passes of severe forward extrusion process. Also, the hardness value after sixth pass is greatly increased about 203%. In addition, the fatigue test results show that the endurance limit is improved 123% after sixth pass.


Severe forward extrusion Mechanical properties Aluminum Finite element method Strain uniformity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Valiev RZ, Langdon TG (2006) Principles of equal-channel angular pressing as a processing tool for grain refinement. Prog Mater Sci 51:881–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Xu S, Zhao G, Ma X, Ren G (2007) Finite element analysis and optimization of equal channel angular pressing for producing ultrafine grained materials. J Mater Process Technol 184(1):209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ghadimi S, Sedighi M, Djavanroodi F, Asgari A (2015) Experimental and numerical investigation of a Cu–Al bimetallic tube produced by ECAP. Mater Manuf Process 30:1256–1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Manafi B, Saeidi M (2016) Development of a novel severe plastic deformation method: friction stir equal channel angular pressing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol. doi: 10.1007/s00170-015-8305-6
  5. 5.
    Hakimian H, Sedighi M, Asgari A (2016) Experimental and numerical study on the ECARed magnesium AZ31 alloy. Mech Ind 30:1–7Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beygelzimer Y, Varyukhin V, Synkov S, Orlov D (2009) Useful properties of twist extrusion. Mater Sci Eng A-Struct 503:14–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang C, Li F, Li Q, Li J, Wang L, Dong J (2013) A novel severe plastic deformation method for fabricating ultrafine grained pure copper. Mater Design 43:492–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Richert M, Liu Q, Hansen N (1999) Microstructural evolution over a large strain range in aluminum deformed by cyclic-extrusion-compression. Mater Sci Eng A-Struct 260:275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fatemi-Varzaneh SM, Zarei-Hanzaki A (2009) Accumulative back extrusion (ABE) processing as a novel bulk deformation method. Mater Sci Eng A-Struct 504:104–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mesbah M, Faraji G, Bushroa AR (2014) Characterization of nanostructured pure aluminum tubes produced by tubular channel angular pressing (TCAP). Mater Sci Eng A-Struct 590:289–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhilyaev AP, Langdon TG (2008) Using high-pressure torsion for metal processing: fundamentals and applications. Prog Mater Sci 53:893–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Varukhin V, Beygelzimer Y, Synkov S, Orlov D (2006) Applications of twist extrusion. Mater Sci Forum 503:335–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee JC, Seok HK, Suh JY (2002) Microstructural evolutions of the Al strip prepared by cold rolling and continuous equal channel angular pressing. Acta Mater 50:4005–4019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rosochowski A (2014) Severe plastic deformation of metals. US Patent. US 8631673 B2Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Purcek G, Saray O, Kul O, Karaman I, Yapici GG, Haouaoui M, Maier HJ (2009) Mechanical and wear properties of ultrafine-grained pure Ti produced by multi-pass equal-channel angular extrusion. Mater Sci Eng A-Struct 517:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khorrami MS, Kazeminezhad M, Kokabi AH (2012) Mechanical properties of severely plastic deformed aluminum sheets joined by friction stir welding. Mater Sci Eng A-Struct 543:243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Surendarnath S, Sankaranarayanasamy K, Ravisankar B (2014) Workability study on 99.04% pure aluminum processed by ECAP. Mater Manuf Process 29:691–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Soliman MS, El-Danaf EA, Almajid AA (2012) Effect of equal-channel angular pressing process on properties of 1050 al alloy. Mater Manuf Process 27:746–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Terent’ev VF, Dobatkin SV, Nikulin SA, Kopylov VI, Prosvirin DV, Rogachev SO, Bannykh IO (2011) Effect of equal-channel angular pressing on the fatigue strength of titanium and a zirconium alloy. Russ Metall (Metally) 981–988Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abdulstaar M, Mhaede M, Wollmann M, Wagner L (2014) Investigating the effects of bulk and surface severe plastic deformation on the fatigue, corrosion behavior and corrosion fatigue of AA5083. Surf Coat Tech 254:244–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rahimi F, Eivani AR, Kiani M, Razavi SF (2014) Sever plastic deformation of AA1050 and AA6063 alloys using pure shear extrusion. Proceedings of Iran International Aluminum Conference (IIAC2014)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chyła P, Bednarek S, Łukaszek-Sołek A, Sińczak J (2010) Strain distribution in ECAP process with various friction conditions-numerical modelling. Met Found Eng 36:13–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jing Z, Ke-shi Z, Hwai-Chung W, Mei-hua Y (2009) Experimental and numerical investigation on pure aluminum by ECAP. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 19:1303–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barde MP, Barde PJ (2012) What to use to express the variability of data: standard deviation or standard error of mean? Perspect Clin Res 3:113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Riahi
    • 1
  • M. H. Ehsanian
    • 1
  • A. Asgari
    • 1
  • F. Djavanroodi
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.College of EngineeringPrince Mohammad Bin Fahd UniversityKhobarKingdom of Saudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations