Numerical simulation of thermally induced residual stresses in friction stir welding of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 at different welding speeds

  • Marcel BachmannEmail author
  • Jan Carstensen
  • Luciano Bergmann
  • Jorge F. dos Santos
  • Chuan Song Wu
  • Michael Rethmeier


The paper deals with a numerical finite element simulation of the residual stress evolution in friction stir welding of 6 mm thick aluminum alloy AA2024-T3. The transient thermal field during the welding process was calculated with the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0. Therefore, a thermal-pseudo-mechanical (TPM) heat source was implemented. A subsequent mechanical simulation was performed with varying hardening models for different welding speeds of 60 and 300 mm/min. The influence of softening of the material, which was due to hardening precipitation dissolution associated to the heating, was also investigated. Experiments in terms of thermocouple measurements as well as Vickers hardness and X-ray measurements of the residual stresses were conducted and compared to numerically obtained results. A qualitatively as well as quantitatively good agreement was found for different applied welding speeds.


Friction stir welding Residual stress Finite element simulation Thermal softening Aluminum alloy 2024-T3 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and TestingBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Helmholtz-Zentrum GeesthachtInstitute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics, Solid-State Joining ProcessesGeesthachtGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Materials JoiningShandong UniversityJinanChina

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