Study on microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar steel joint developed using friction stir welding

  • Gaurav SharmaEmail author
  • D. K. Dwivedi


In the present study, microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar weld of structural steel and ferritic stainless steel (FSS) plates of thickness 3 mm were investigated. The plates were butt welded by friction stir welding and defect-free welds were produced at a traverse speed of 20 mm/min and rotational speed of 508 rpm using a tungsten carbide tool. The weld joint consisted of alternate bands of both steels resembling an onion ring pattern. In the weld joint, six distinct regions were found including both the base metals. The stir zone of structural steel revealed refined grain structure of ferrite, pearlite, and martensite whereas in ferritic stainless side, highly refined ferritic grains with grain boundary martensite was observed and also confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The hardness of the weld joint varies from 186 to 572 HV. This scatter of hardness in stir zone is due to the presence of metal from both sides. The ultimate tensile and yield strengths of the transverse weld specimens was higher than the structural steel base metal whereas lower than the ferritic stainless steel, having fracture from structural steel side.


Friction stir welding Microstructure Tensile properties Structural steel Hardness 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Khorrami MS, Mostafaei MA, Pouraliakbar H, Kakabi AH (2014) Study on microstructure and mechanical characteristics of low-carbon steel and ferritic stainless steel joints. Mater Sci Eng A 608:35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhu ML, Xuan FX (2010) Correlation between microstructure, hardness and strength in HAZ of dissimilar welds of rotor steels. Mater Sci Eng A 527:4035–4042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Satyanarayana VV, Reddy GM, Mohandas T (2005) Dissimilar metal friction welding of austenitic-ferritic stainless steels. J Mater Process Technol 160:128–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cho HH, Han HN, Hong ST et al (2011) Microstructural analysis of friction stir welded ferritic stainless steel. Mater Sci Eng A 528:2889–2894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shanmugam K, Lakshminarayanan AK, Balasubramanian V (2009) Effect of weld metal properties on fatigue crack growth behavior of gas tungsten arc welded AISI 409M grade ferritic stainless steel joints. Int J Pres Vessel Pip 86:517–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jafarzadegan M, Feng AH, Abdollah-zadeh A, Saeid T, Shen J, Assadi H (2012) Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel. Mater Charact 74:28–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sharma C, Dwivedi DK, Kumar P (2012) Effect of welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded joints of AA7039 aluminum alloy. Mater Des 36:379–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arora KS, Pandey S, Schaper M, Kumar R (2010) Effect of process parameters on friction stir welding of aluminum alloy 2219-T87. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 50:941–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang Z, Liu YL, Chen JT (2009) Effect of shoulder size on the temperature rise and the material deformation in friction stir welding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 45:889–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li B, Shen Y (2012) A feasibility research on friction stir welding of a new-typed lap–butt joint of dissimilar Al alloys. Mater Des 34:725–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Habibnia M, Shakeri M, Nourouzi S, Besharati Givi MK (2015) Microstructural and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 5050 Al alloy and 304 stainless steel plates. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 76:819–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cho HH, Kang SH et al (2012) Microstructural evolution in friction stir welding of high-strength line pipe steel. Mater Des 34:258–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Siddiquee AN, Pandey S (2014) Experimental investigation on deformation and wear of WC tool during friction stir welding (FSW) of stainless steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 73:479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aghaei A, Dehghani K (2015) Characterizations of friction stir welding of dissimilar Monel400 and stainless steel 316. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 77:573–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhang Z, Zhang HW (2014) Solid mechanics-based Eulerian model of friction stir welding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 72:1647–1653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nandan R, Roy GG, Lienert TJ, Debroy T (2007) Three dimensional heat and material flow during friction stir welding of mild steel. Acta Mater 55:883–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mishra RS, Ma ZY (2005) Friction stir welding and processing. Mater Sci Eng R 50:1–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Uzun H, Dalle DC, Argagnotto A et al (2005) Friction stir welding of dissimilar Al 6013-T4 to X5CrNil8-10 stainless steel. Mater Des 26:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    ASTM International standard E-8. Standard test methods for tension testing of metallic materialsGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yon Y, Da-Ton Z, Cheng Q, Wen Z (2010) Dissimilar friction stir welding between 5052 aluminum alloy and AZ31 magnesium alloy. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 20:s619–s623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gattani GK, Boob AN (2013) Study on effect of manual metal Arc welding process parameters on width of heat affected zone (HAZ) for Ms 1005 steel. Int J Mod Eng Res 3:1493–1500Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lienert TJ, Stellwag WL, Grimmett BB, Warke RW (2013) Friction stir welding studies on mild steel. Am Wel Soc 1-9Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mishra RS, De PS, Kumar N (2014) Friction stir welding and processing. Springer International Publishing, SwitzerlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Industrial EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

Personalised recommendations