Effect of stress relieving heat treatment on surface topography and dimensional accuracy of incrementally formed grade 1 titanium sheet parts

  • Amar Kumar BeheraEmail author
  • Hengan Ou
Open Access


The forming of parts with an optimized surface roughness and high dimensional accuracy is important in many applications of incremental sheet forming (ISF). To realize this, the effect of stress relieving heat treatment of grade-1 Ti parts performed before and after forming on the surface finish and dimensional accuracy was studied. It was found that heat treatment at a temperature of 540 °C for 2 h improves the surface finish of formed parts resulting in a surface with little or no visible tool marks. Additionally, it improves the dimensional accuracy of parts after unclamping from the rig used for forming, in particular, that of parts with shallow wall angles (typically <25°). It was also noted that post-forming heat treatment improves the surface finish of parts. The surface topography of formed parts was studied using interferometry to yield areal surface roughness parameters and subsequently using secondary electron imaging. Back-scatter electron microscopy imaging results coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that heat treatment prior to forming leads to tool wear as indicated by the presence of Fe in samples. Furthermore, post-forming heat treatment prevents curling up of formed parts due to compressive stresses if the formed part is trimmed.


Stress relieving Heat treatment Titanium Incremental sheet forming Surface roughness Trimming 


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© The Author(s) 2016

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Division of Materials, Mechanics and StructuresUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  2. 2.School of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

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