Crack-free selective laser melting of silica glass: single beads and monolayers on the substrate of the same material


Selective laser melting (SLM) is recognized for additive manufacturing from metals and alloys. Application of this technique to ceramic materials could also be promising. However, ceramics are brittle and often crack during this process. Silica glass is promising for obtaining crack-free ceramic parts due to its extremely low thermal expansion coefficient. The carried out experiments are elementary steps of SLM. Powder of particles <20 μm is deposited on a thick substrate to form layers of thickness from 100 to 200 μm. The obtained sandwich-like target is scanned with the laser beam of 10.6 μm wavelength. Cracking of silica glass is not observed at laser treatment. The quality of the obtained single beads is very sensitive to the laser power and the scanning velocity. This indicates that consolidation of powder requires a narrow temperature interval. A precise control of laser parameters is necessary to maintain the temperature within this range. Such control can be difficult to attain for industrial SLM machines. The theoretical analysis of consolidation kinetics shows that the best solution of this problem would be using powder with smaller particle size. The beads of consolidated powder can be superposed to form a uniform layer on the substrate. The lower is the thickness of the powder layer, the better is the quality of the consolidated layer. This is because of more uniform heating of finer layers by laser.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Li Q, Danlos Y, Song B, Zhang B, Yin S, Liao H (2015) Effect of high-temperature preheating on the selective laser melting of yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic. J Mater Process Technol 222:61–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Maruo H, Miyamoto I, Inoue Y, Arata Y (1982) CO2 laser welding of ceramics. J Jpn Weld Soc 51:182–189

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Ghosh S, Choi J (2006) Modeling and experimental verification of transient/residual stresses and microstructure formation in multi-layer laser aided DMD process. J Heat Transf 128:662–679

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Gusarov AV, Pavlov M, Smurov I (2011) Residual stresses at laser surface remelting and additive manufacturing. Phys Procedia 12:248–253

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ryzhkov EV, Pavlov MD, Gusarov AV, Artemenko YuA, Vasiltsov VV (2012) Analysis of cracking at selective laser melting of ceramics. In: Sudarshan TS, Jeandin M, Firdirici V (ed) Proc 26 Int Conf Surface Modification Technologies, Lyon, pp 535–546

  6. 6.

    Gusarov AV, Malakhova-Ziablova IS, Pavlov MD (2013) Thermoelastic residual stresses and deformations at laser treatment. Phys Procedia 41:889–896

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Tang HH, Liu FH, Lin WH (2006) Rapid prototyping machine based on ceramic laser fusion. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 30:687–692

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Yen HC, Tang HH (2012) Study on direct fabrication of ceramic shell mold with slurry-based ceramic laser fusion and ceramic laser sintering. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 60:1009–1015

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Wilkes J, Wissenbach K (2007) Rapid manufacturing of ceramic components by selective laser melting. In: Proc LIM, Munich, pp 207–211

  10. 10.

    Hagedorn Y-C, Wilkes J, Meiners W, Wissenbach K, Poprawe R (2010) Net shaped high performance oxide ceramic parts by selective laser melting. Phys Procedia 5:587–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Wilkes J, Hagedorn YC, Meiners W, Wissenbach K (2013) Additive manufacturing of ZrO2-Al2O3 ceramic components by selective laser melting. Rapid Prototyp J 19:51–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Deckers J, Meyers S, Kruth JP, Vleugels J (2014) Direct selective laser sintering/melting of high density alumina powder layers at elevated temperatures. Phys Procedia 56:117–124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Wang W, Ma S, Fuh JYH, Lu L, Liu Y (2013) Processing and characterization of laser-sintered Al2O3/ZrO2/SiO2. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68:2565–2569

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Zocca A, Colombo P, Gunster J, Muhler T, Heinrich JG (2013) Selective laser densification of lithium aluminosilicate glass ceramic tapes. Appl Surf Sci 265:610–614

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Fateri M, Gebhardt A, Thuemmler S, Thurn L (2014) Experimental investigation on selective laser melting of glass. Phys Procedia 56:357–364

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Ciurana J, Hernandez L, Delgado J (2013) Influence of process parameters on surface quality of CoCrMo powder material. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68:1103–1110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Pupo Y, Monroy KP, Ciurana J (2015) Energy density analysis on single tracks formed by selective laser melting with CoCrMo produced by selective laser melting. Int J Adv Manuf Technol. doi:10.1007/s00170-015-7040-3

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Khmyrov RS, Grigoriev SN, Okunkova AA, Gusarov AV (2014) On the possibility of selective laser melting of quartz glass. Phys Procedia 56:345–56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Wray KL, Connolly TJ (1959) Thermal conductivity of clear fused silica at high temperatures. J Appl Phys 30:1702–1704

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Sosman RB (1927) The Properties of Silica: An introduction to the properties of substances in the solid non-conducting state. American Chemical Society Monograph Series 37, New York, Chemical Catalog Co

  21. 21.

    Grigoriev IS, Meilikhov EZ (1991) Physical quantities. Handbook. Energoatomizdat, Moscow

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Kingery WD (1960) Introduction to ceramics. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Richter F (2006) Upsetting and Viscoelasticity of Vitreous SiO2: Experiments, Interpretation and Simulation. Thesis. Berlin

  24. 24.

    Gusarov AV, Kovalev EP (2009) Model of thermal conductivity in powder beds. Phys Rev B 80:024202

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Rombouts M, Froyen L, Gusarov AV, Bentefour EH, Glorieux C (2005) Photopyroelectric measurement of thermal conductivity of metallic powders. J Appl Phys 97:024905

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Gray DE (1972) American Institute of Physics handbook. McGrawHill, New York

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. V. Gusarov.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Khmyrov, R.S., Protasov, C.E., Grigoriev, S.N. et al. Crack-free selective laser melting of silica glass: single beads and monolayers on the substrate of the same material. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 85, 1461–1469 (2016).

Download citation


  • Evaporation
  • Coalescence
  • Consolidation
  • Heat transfer
  • Residual stresses