Studies on the influence of process parameters on the AISI 316L resistance spot-welded specimens

  • Jagadeesha T.
  • T. J. Sarvoththama Jothi


Resistance spot welding (RSW) is a popular welding process employed for joining sheet metals typically in automobile and aerospace industries. RSW is conventional but not obsolete as it addresses the desirable characteristics of energy efficiency, narrow heat-affected zone (HAZ), simplicity, and automation that make it the first choice of manufacturers. In recent days, there is a perpetual demand for spot welding owing to its suitability for joining components especially in biomedical applications. Austenitic stainless steel of grade AISI 316L, a biocompatible material with extraordinary features and global suitability, caters to several industrial dimensions. In this research paper, an attempt is made to experimentally investigate the quality of the weld prepared by resistance spot welding of austenitic stainless steel type 316L of equal thickness (2.0 + 2.0 mm). Experimental trials based on design of experiments (DOE) are conducted by varying the process parameters such as electrode tip diameter, welding current, and heating time and subsequently measure the nugget size and shape which governs the strength and bond integrity of the resistance spot welds. Subsequently, a coupled structural-thermo-electric analysis is performed to analyse the transient temperature field for predicting the nugget formation during RSW of 316L stainless sheet using a 2D axisymmetric finite element (FE) model. FE-based model of RSW process is developed using ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) module available in FE package, ANSYS. Thermo-physical interactions like heat transfer through the Joule effect, the effect of latent heat of fusion, and the thermal and electrical contact conductance are considered while developing the FE-based model. A good coherence is achieved between numerical predictions of nugget shape and experimental spot-welded results. Finally, the welded specimens are subjected to destructive testing and metallurgical characterizations to evaluate its strength and quality.


RSW AISI 316L Nugget Finite element analysis ANSYS 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Lei ZZ, Kang HT, Liu YG (2011) Finite element analysis for transient thermal characteristics of resistance spot welding process with three sheets assemblies. Procedia Eng 16:622–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ma N, Murakawa H (2009) Numerical and experimental study on nugget formation in resistance spot welding for high strength steel sheets in automobile bodies. Trans JWRI 38(2):19–24Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hryniewicz T, Rokosz K, Filippi M (2009) Biomaterial studies on AISI 316L stainless steel after magnetoelectropolishing. Materials 2:129–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Charde N (2013) An experimental investigation on spot weld growth on dissimilar joints of 304L austenitic stainless steel and medium carbon steel (part 1). Int J Adv Appl Sci 2(1):25–32Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eshraghi M, Tschopp MA, Zaeem MA, Felicelli SD (2013) A parametric study of resistance spot welding of a dual-phase steel using finite element analysis. In: Marquis F (ed) PRICM: 8 pacific Rim international congress on advanced materials and processing. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang H, Hou Y, Zhang J, Qi X, Wang F (2015) A new method for nondestructive quality evaluation of the resistance spot welding based on the radar chart method and the decision tree classifier. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 78:841–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang Y, Luo Z, Li Y, Liu ZM, Huang ZY (2015) Microstructure characterization and tensile properties of Mg/Al dissimilar joints manufactured by thermo-compensated resistance spot welding with Zn interlayer. Mater Des 75:166–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Raoelison R, Fuentes A, Pouvreau C, Rogeon P, Carre P, Dechalotte F (2014) Modeling and numerical simulation of the resistance spot welding of zinc coated steel sheets using rounded tip electrode: analysis of required conditions. Appl Math Model 38(9):2505–2521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Spitz M, Fleischanderl M, Sierlinger R, Reischauer M, Perndorfer F, Fafilek G (2015) Surface lubrication influence on electrode degradation during resistance spot welding of hot dip galvanized steel sheets. J Mater Process Technol 216:339–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kong JP, Han TK, Chin KG, Park BG, Kang CY (2014) Effect of boron content and welding current on the mechanical properties of electrical resistance spot welds in complex-phase steels. Mater Des 54:598–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kianersi D, Mostafaei A, Amadeh AA (2014) Resistance spot welding joints of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel sheets: phase transformations, mechanical properties and microstructure characterizations. Mater Des 61:251–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saha DC, Cho Y, Park YD (2013) Metallographic and fracture characteristics of resistance spot welded TWIP steels. Sci Technol Weld Join 18(8):711–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tsai CL, Dai WL, Dickinson DW, Papritan JC (1991) Analysis and development of a real-time control methodology in resistance spot welding, welding research supplement 339s-351sGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ho CY, Chu TK (1977) Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of nine selected AISI stainless steels, Cindas Report 45, American Iron and Steel InstituteGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    (2008)Thermophysical properties of materials for nuclear engineering: a tutorial and collection of data, International Atomic Energy Agency, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rohsenow WM, Hartnett JR, Cho YI (1998) Handbook of heat transfer, 3rd edn. McGraw-hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu KC (1975) Resistance spot welding of high contact-resistance surfaces for weld bonding, Welding Research Supplement 436s – 442sGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhao Y, Zhang Y, Lai X, Wang P (2013) Resistance spot welding of ultra-thin automotive steel. J Manuf Sci Eng 135:021012–1 – 10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sun X, Dong P (2000) Analysis of aluminum resistance spot welding processes using coupled finite element procedures Welding Research Supplement. 215s – 221sGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Deshmukh H, Burande DH, Shukla S, Kamble P (2014) Strength analysis of resistance spot weld and weld-bonded single lap joints. Int J Mech Ind Technol 2(1):170–179Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    (2010)Handbook for resistance spot welding Miller Electric Mfg. Co. AppletonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of Technology NITCalicutIndia

Personalised recommendations